Vol 20 No 6 December 2014
1180 The Thea Sinclair Award for Journal Article Excellence, 2014
1363 Index to Volume 20, 2014
Abstract: Previous studies have concentrated on comparing price dispersion and price level between offline and online channels. The primary objectives of this study are to (a) investigate the relationships between offline price dispersion and a company’s performance, (b) examine the relationships between online price dispersion and a company’s performance and (c) investigate the effect of price dispersion between offline and online channels on a company’s performance. The findings show that a decrease in online price dispersion has a positive impact on a hotel performance. Therefore, to enhance hotel performance, hotel marketers should manage pricing strategies for multiple online channels; in addition, hotel companies should pursue rate parity policies across different online channels. Conversely, the results show a positive relationship between offline price dispersion and hotel performance. It is suggested that customization and bundling strategies for offline channels enhance the overall profitability of hotels. The findings advance knowledge of consumers’ purchasing behaviour and sellers’ pricing strategies.
Abstract: This article investigates the non-consumptive, or appreciative value of the ‘Big 7’ and identifies the variables that influence willingness to pay (WTP). Addo Elephant National Park in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, is one of few places in the world where tourists can view all seven species: lion, buffalo, rhinoceros, leopard, elephant, southern right whale and great white shark. Two surveys were conducted, using the same questionnaire, one during summer and one during winter. A total of 232 completed questionnaires were used in the Heckman model selection procedure. The findings revealed that, although a variety of socio-demographic, behavioural and motivational factors influence the amount respondents are willing to pay, there is a clear distinction between the determinants for land species compared to marine species. This poses challenges for the marketing of and establishment of the Big 7 as a brand.
Abstract: With demand increasing for nature-based tourism, forest park authorities and site managers need to understand the trade-off between the level of natural wilderness protection and the visitor experience. The authors use a choice experiment to examine which kind of development profiles are worth considering and which paths not to follow. They focus on the mixed attributes of natural resources and historical relics, and the management services provided by Lushunkou National Forest Park in China, which is a popular recreation site attracting a large number of visitors annually. The results indicate that the expected number of visitors to the park is the most important characteristic for visitors. However, a large increase or decrease in the number of visitors causes visitors’ welfare losses. Additionally, increasing the protection of the cultural and historical relics on the site is the second most highly valued feature for its visitors. Thus, the results show that the protection of forest wilderness and the recreational use of national parks can cause conflicting welfare effects if managed in inappropriate ways.
Abstract: This study applies the hedonic pricing model to lift ticket prices from 2011 for 181 alpine ski areas in the USA. Marginal implicit prices are estimated for a variety of ski area physical characteristics and skier amenities. While controlling for these other attributes, the analysis also investigates crowding effects in alpine downhill skiing. Increased crowding, approximated by additional skiers per hour per acre, is shown to raise lift ticket prices at first, before exerting a negative impact on lift ticket prices at high levels of crowding. The results provide evidence for the existence of both agglomeration and congestion effects in downhill skiing and support previous findings of non- linear crowding effects in other outdoor recreation activities.
Abstract: This study conducts multiple regression analysis to establish a forecasting model for the number of inbound tourists to Taiwan from different countries. Monte Carlo simulation is used to forecast the number of inbound tourists to Taiwan from different countries and to evaluate whether the opening-up to Chinese tourists has a crowding-out effect on tourism demand. The empirical results indicate that, except for Australia and the UK, the inbound tourists from the sampled countries suffered from varying degrees of crowding-out effect as a result of Taiwan’s opening-up to Chinese tourists. This is particularly noticeable with tourists from Korea, Singapore and the USA. In terms of regional effects, Asia is the most affected by the opening-up policy, while Europe and Oceania are less affected. However, the number of inbound tourists from different countries has not dropped, but shows an upward trend.
Abstract: China is a major source of empirical observations with which to test different hypotheses relative to tourism research. In this paper, the author constructs a spatial model of tourism industry development and, considering spatial distance, uses Chinese tourism panel data to analyse the relationship between market potential, industrial density and the revenue of tourism firms. The study provides evidence that tourism market potential and agglomeration density are statistically significant and quantitatively important in explaining the revenue of tourism firms. This finding is robust, controlling for input factor density and endogeneity using instrument variables. Tourism market potential is found to matter through the mechanisms promoted by new economic geography theory. The estimated coefficients are consistent with plausible values for the predication of the model.
Abstract: This study assesses the economic impact of three major sport events – the Formula One Grand Prix (F1), the ATP World Tour Masters 1000 (ATP), and the Shanghai International Marathon (SIM) – on the host city in China. To that end, the authors estimate the amount of different types of attendees at the events, calculate the total expenditures generated by attendees, assess the new money inflow into the host economy and conduct an economic impact assessment via an input–output model using computer software. The results of this study confirm the notion that major sport events can be used as tools to increase the economic activities of the hosts. Furthermore, the study proposes a useful method of assessing the economic impact of sport events in non-consumer-driven economies, such as China.
Abstract: Domestic overnight travel is one of the most significant sectors in the Australian tourism industry. Understanding the extent to which the crucial factors influence tourists’ choice of overnight trip can be a key to successful marketing and strategic planning in the domestic travel industry. To understand the characteristics of the domestic overnight tourists, this paper analyses the data by means of a proposed new impact analysis approach, which overcomes some limitations of the conventional impact analysis approach. It also investigates how socio-demographic factors, fuel price and domestic airfares affect the probability of tourists opting for domestic overnight trips. Impact analysis is a method for analysing the association of the impact factor with the response variable in terms of estimated probability. This research demonstrates that household income, country of birth, life-cycle stage and home state are four of the most significant categories that generate the highest maximum impact on the overnight trip decision.
Abstract: This paper analyses the impacts brought about by the economic crisis starting in 2007 on Hungarian shopping tourism. Considering the long-term symbiotic relationship of the national retail trade and international inbound tourism, the crisis, which has affected each segment of the national economy, has also influenced both the characteristics of tourist shopping and the structure and volume of retail trade, with an indirect impact on the country’s GDP. The study investigates the purchases of day-trippers arriving from neighbouring countries and focuses on changes that occurred between 2006 and 2010. The survey is based on the assumption that the sending markets have become more price- sensitive as a consequence of the crisis, and the changes brought about will be diverse, depending on the economic and social processes of each sending country. Demand is influenced by crisis management strategies, by the price–value ratio of goods and services available in the market, and by the business practices of retail companies. Based on secondary analysis of the databases of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office and the Hungarian National Bank, the paper provides an overview of how Hungarian shopping tourism was shaped by the above factors in the period of crisis.
Abstract: Destinations compete with each other using production factors generated internally or purchased externally. One factor usually outsourced is knowledge. Key providers of this asset are firms offering knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS); the strength of Krakow’s position on the tourism market could be significantly influenced by KIBS firms. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between the development in Krakow of tourism, on the one hand, and KIBS firms, on the other. A review of the literature confirmed that KIBS are a determinant of the city’s potential (including that of the tourism sector). Analysis of tourism supply, represented by the growth dynamic in the hotel segment, shows a higher increase than in tourism movement, but significantly lower than in many other KIBS subsectors. In this context the competitiveness and innovation of Krakow’s tourism companies could be boosted by knowledge and expertise from KIBS companies.
Abstract: Dolphin Tale is a major motion picture released by Warner Brothers in 2011. The authors forecast the number of visitors to the film location, including the film-induced tourism effect originated by Dolphin Tale. They use intervention analysis to measure this effect, with the pre-film series forecasted trend as the comparison baseline instead of the usual linear trend. They address the proper modelling of the series seasonality in the presence of an abrupt increase in visitors immediately after the premiere and a lack of data on the subsequent months. They find that the film induced a 51% increase in the mean level of visitors to the location.
Abstract: In the midst of declining external demand due to the world economic downturn since 2008, the tourism sector has emerged as a major source of support to the South Pacific island countries, including Fiji. Tourists from the region’s two advanced economies, Australia and New Zealand, find Fiji a more affordable tourist destination than distant European and Asian holiday resorts. The development of the tourism sector in Fiji owes much to foreign direct investment (FDI) in hotels, resorts and other infrastructural facilities. This paper uses bounds cointegration technique and investigates the contribution of FDI to Fiji’s tourism sector. The analysis identifies positive associations between FDI and tourism earnings as well as between currency depreciation and tourism earnings.