Vol 21 No 3 June 2015
Abstract: This study provides an initial analysis of the key determinants of tourism in Sicily. In doing so, it responds to the general lack of a scientific approach in the study and management of tourism in Sicily. By mixing a gravity approach and system dynamics methodology, the attractiveness of Sicily is examined, taking into account both structural and promotional aspects that might affect tourism demand. The results strongly suggest that the island’s natural and cultural resources, the road infrastructure and the urban environment are important determinants of tourism demand in Sicily. The findings may be useful for local authorities involved in the development of tourism, and represent a starting point for further research dealing with future trends.
Abstract: The varied supply of tourism services – with particular emphasis on tangible and intangible cultural aspects – corresponds ideally to visitors’ characteristics and wishes. This paper considers a major tourist destination, such as Amsterdam, as an export-oriented multi-product company, characterized by spatial and functional market segmentation and monopolistic competition reflected in product differentiation. Urban branding and attractiveness may favour tourist destination loyalty. The complex decision web of motivation and satisfaction of tourists in Amsterdam is analysed with a structural equations model (SEM). The authors find that different tourist profiles, in terms of personal characteristics and motivations, can significantly impact the satisfaction received from tourism services. Furthermore, and most interestingly, the results suggest that satisfaction does not necessarily lead to improved destination loyalty, but is contingent on the source of satisfaction. In this case, satisfaction resulting from tangible or intangible cultural sources has clearly different implications for loyalty, with relevant managerial implications.
Abstract: This paper assesses the determinants of international tourists’ spending in the Algarve from 2007 to 2010. Based on a sample of 15,542 observations a cross-section model was estimated using ordinary least squares. The results reveal that a combination of socio-demographic, behavioural and motivation variables explain the spending patterns of international tourists in the Algarve. Analysis of the data indicates that tourist motivations related to accommodation facilities, cultural and historical resources, gastronomy, hospitality, prices and sightseeing tours positively affect tourists’ spending. Moreover, the findings provide evidence that, over the years, the most loyal markets in Algarve reveal changing patterns in their spending behaviour. Destination management authorities should be aware of this spending behaviour of second-generation sun and sand visitors and should formulate strategies accordingly. Policy and managerial recommendations are discussed.
Abstract: Seasonality is a frequent and important occurrence in the tourism industry, with concurrent effects on both the financial and volume flows of tourism. The purpose of this study is to measure pattern, amplitude and timing differences between the seasonal factors of monetary and non-monetary indicators of tourism development in Aruba. The study contributes to filling the gap in the literature on the dynamics in the co-movement of these two types of seasonal factors, with the simultaneous incorporation of three measurement dimensions of this relationship. The methodology involves decomposing time series on both stay-over tourism and tourism expenditure using the Census X-12 technique, with the subsequent calculation of Pearson’s correlation coefficients, ratios of amplitudes and timing differentials of peaks and troughs. The results show important differences in the pattern, amplitude and timing of the seasonal factors.
Abstract: In this paper the authors investigate the effect of a Keynesian policy in tourism destinations where tourism products are mainly sold through ‘direct sales’ (decentralized solution) and the tourism market equilibrium is characterized by sticky prices and unemployment (coordination failure); thus the conditions for a Keynesian demand policy are verified. This policy is a Pareto improving solution with respect to the organization of sales by tour operators or destination managers (centralized solution), since tourism firms are not worse-off in terms of profits and there is an increase of tourism production as well as of employment.
Abstract: The Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) is the method for measuring the economic contribution of tourism to a nation’s economy approved by the United Nations and other authoritative international organizations. While a considerable number of countries have developed TSAs, no programme has been proposed for determining how closely a given TSA conforms to the United Nations standards. The purpose of this paper is to present a programme for ascertaining the consistency of a given TSA with the United Nations standards and to apply this programme to a long-standing TSA, the United States Travel and Tourism Satellite Account (USTTSA). The results of this application are summarized and differences between the USTTSA and the United Nations standards are highlighted. The authors find that the programme is comprehensive, feasible in application and can improve the development, interpretation and comparisons of TSAs across countries.
Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of long-run winter tourism demand for French ski resorts. The data are based on skier visits to the largest ski-lift operator in the world (Compagnie des Alpes) for the winter seasons 1993/1994 to 2011/2012. Using dynamic panel data models for six ski resorts, the study finds relatively low income and price elasticities in absolute terms, with long-run elasticities of 0.64 and –0.40, respectively. Furthermore, the study finds that snow depth measured at the weather station Col de Porte – located at the medium elevation of 1,325 metres above sea level – is a significant predictor of skier days in the high-elevation ski areas. However, the magnitude of the effect of poor snow years is very small: on average, low-snow winter seasons (such as 1989/1990 or 2006/2007) will lead to a reduction in skier visits of about 2.5%. The results are not sensitive with respect to the measurement and timing of snow depth.
Abstract: The authors propose a dynamic panel data investigation into the role of interregional migration in Italian domestic tourism demand, using three panel estimators characterized by different homogeneity assumptions imposed on the parameters. A standard cointegration analysis is performed before proceeding to panel regressions. The results provide ample support for a strong positive relationship between per capita domestic tourism nights and per capita internal migration stock. This evidence extends the migration–tourism nexus, already established at the international level, to the intra-national scale and reinforces the idea that host regions should not overlook the role of migration when designing their tourism policies.
Abstract: In accordance with integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), private stakeholders could be asked to pay for the benefits from beach conservation projects. Since a private contribution is measured by the amount of other goods a person is willing to give up for beach quality, it can be solicited in monetary terms or, when possible, in other forms, such as specific works. In this paper, by analysing the results of two surveys in Italy concerning stakeholders’ perceptions of ICZM and their willingness to pay for these benefits, suggestions for beach management are provided to policymakers. One survey focuses on beach visitors who are asked to pay in monetary terms, while the other focuses on sunbathing establishment managers, who are asked to pay not only in monetary terms but also through beach works. The results show that the majority of these stakeholders are fully or partially aware of what ICZM is, and are unwilling to pay. However, regression analysis of those willing to pay suggests that promoting an information and education campaign about ICZM may be important if stakeholders’ probability of paying is to be increased.
Abstract: The tourism sector is considered a powerful stimulator of national economies because it affects those economic sectors associated with it, and at the same time creates jobs, increases domestic demand, contributes positively to the balance of payments and allows a better reallocation of wealth. Recognizing this importance, it becomes relevant to investigate the impact of tourism in Portugal at the regional level in order to compare the different Portuguese regions and identify their determinants of attraction. After characterizing the Portuguese tourism market, the authors undertake an empirical analysis, based on a panel data analysis for the Portuguese regions classified by NUTs II and for the period 1990–2007. The results suggest that Lisbon is the region that contributes most to Portuguese GDP because its tourism product is more differentiated.
Abstract: This paper presents the contribution of the international meeting industry to the Korean national economy. To obtain more accurate results, the study adopted three improvements over previous research: consideration of both supply and demand; direct expenditure surveys of participants and hosts; and re-categorization of related business sectors. The results of the input–output analysis showed that per capita expenditure for international and domestic participants was US$2,432.4 and US$459.3, respectively, and the per capita average budget was US$562.1. Based on these findings, the total contribution of the international meeting industry to the Korean economy exceeds US$1,343.2 million in output, US$236.6 million in personal income, US$589.3 million in value added, US$61.5 million in tax revenue and 16,336 full-time-equivalent jobs. These results provide two key implications, providing evidence of the importance of both the supply and demand sides and the relative importance of each sub-industry for increasing economic benefit.
Abstract: Method of payment – debit card, credit card or cash – is known to affect consumer spending on various items. The purpose of this study is to scrutinize the relationship between the method of payment and the total trip expenditure of Norwegian winter tourists. There are two main findings: (a) credit card and debit card users – the so-called ‘plastic money’ segments – spend more money in total on their trip than cash users; (b) of the two plastic money segments, credit card users are the bigger spenders. The scholarly and strategic implications are offered.
Abstract: This study examines tourists’ expenditure in the context of Russian resort destinations. The findings indicate that the income and age of travellers, as well as type of accommodation, party size, length of stay, distance travelled, sources for payment, travel organization mode and satisfaction rate are significant factors affecting travellers’ expenditure. The impact of some of these factors was not directly evident, but manifested itself through the duration of stay. Tourists’ spending patterns were different in the various resorts studied. The main hypotheses of the study were confirmed using structural equation modelling.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate methods for analysing the dynamic impact of the tourism sector on key drivers of economic growth for destinations in Australia, while allowing for simultaneity of economic variables. The tourism sector is captured through the proxy of ‘tourism receipts’. In addition, investment and productivity growth are selected as sources of economic growth, in accordance with post-Keynesian growth theory. The paper uses time series quarterly data, covering the period 1995:Q1–2011:Q4, and employs time series estimation techniques, including structural vector autoregressive modelling and impulse response analysis, to describe the macroeconomic responses to sudden shocks in the tourism sector. The results indicate that the growth benefits of an increase in tourist expenditure are positive and statistically significant. Moreover, as suggested by the analysis of impulse response functions, a positive shock to tourist expenditure provides positive, substantial and rather long-lived implications regarding productivity and investment decisions.