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The business and finance of tourism and recreation

ISSN 1354-8166 (print); 2044-0375 (online)


Editor: Stephen Wanhill,
Professor of Tourism Economics,
University of Limerick,
and Emeritus Professor of Tourism
Research, Bournemouth University

This journal is covered by Thomson Reuters in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences. Impact Factor: 0.515. 5-Year Impact Factor: 0.745. (Journal Citation Reports®, 2015 release, Thomson Reuters.)

This journal is indexed in Scopus

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Editorial coverage

Tourism Economics, published bimonthly, covers the business aspects of tourism in the wider context. It takes account of constraints on development, such as social and community interests and the sustainable use of tourism and recreation resources, and inputs into the production process. The definition of tourism used includes tourist trips taken for all purposes, embracing both stay and day visitors.

Articles address the components of the tourism product (accommodation; restaurants; merchandizing; attractions; transport; entertainment; tourist activities); and the economic organization of tourism at micro and macro levels (market structure; role of public/private sectors; community interests; strategic planning; marketing; finance; economic development).

Core subject areas:

  • forecasting
  • public policy (strategies, fiscal and other intervention policies)
  • economic development
  • market structures and competition
  • sources of capital provision
  • labour economics (quality and productivity issues)
  • business aspects of marketing
  • private and public sector interaction
  • economic appraisal at sector and project level
  • mathematical modelling
  • developments in the components of the product
  • structure of the tourism industry (including such issues as ownership, corporate size, international operations, etc)
  • regional economic effects of tourism developments
  • analysis of international data on tourism, such as WTO statistics

Submissions - Notes for authors

Please send papers by e-mail to Professor Stephen Wanhill, c/o  JEdmondson(at)ippublishing.com (this address is obtainable by clicking on Professor Wanhill's name in the preceding sentence). Receipt of your paper will be acknowledged by e-mail and it will then be forwarded to Professor Wanhill.

Length and presentation of contributions

 Papers will normally be about 5,000 words long. However, this is by no means inflexible and substantially shorter or longer papers will be considered where appropriate. Research notes and shorter report-style pieces will also be considered (1,500-2,000 words).

Submissions should be double-spaced. They can be sent to the editor either by e-mail or post c/o the publisher (details above). The publisher will send an acknowledgement on receipt of submissions. Electronic versions must be in Word (postal submissions should include one hard copy and a disk or CD).

The title page should contain full names and addresses of the authors and their affiliations. As this page will not be forwarded to referees, the title of the article (without authors) should be repeated on the first page of the text.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100-150 words. Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper. The text should be organized under appropriate cross-headings (not numbered paragraphs) and where possible these should be not more than 800 words apart.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author's surname (or authors' surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 1998). For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

Articles: Figini, P., and Vici, L. (2010), ‘Tourism and growth in a cross section of countries’, Tourism Economics, Vol 16, No 4, December 2010.

Books: Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., and Dwyer, W. (2010), Tourism Economics and Policy, Channel View, Bristol.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables and illustrations should be presented separately at the end of the text. Authors should bear in mind that, in the print version of the journal, illustrations will be reproduced in black and white.

Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.

Refereeing

All papers, other than research notes and reports, will be subject to a 'double blind' review - i.e. the anonymity of both authors and referees will be maintained throughout the refereeing process. There will be a minimum of two referees for each paper. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from industry) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.

Copyright

Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Stephen Wanhill, Professor of Tourism Economics, University of Limerick, and Emeritus Professor of Tourism Research, Bournemouth University, c/o IP Publishing Ltd, 4th Floor, Hamilton House, Mabledon Place, Bloomsbury, London WC1H 9BB, UK.

Special Advisers
  • Professor John Fletcher, International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research,
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Professor William C. Gartner, Tourism Center,
    University of Minnesota, USA
  • Professor J. Mazanec, MODUL University
    Vienna, Austria
  • Professor Lindsay W. Turner, School of Applied Economics
    Victoria University, Australia

Editorial Advisory Board

  • Professor Eugeni Aguiló
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
  • Dr Albert Assaf
    University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA
  • Professor Esteban Bardolet
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
  • Professor Carlos Pestana Barros
    Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Professor Juan Gabriel Brida
    Free University of Bolzano, Italy
  • Professor Nevenka Čavlek
    University of Zagreb, Croatia
  • Professor Jim Deegan
    University of Limerick, Ireland
  • Dr Sarath Divisekera
    Victoria University of Technology, Australia
  • Professor Larry Dwyer
    University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Professor Peter Forsyth
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor D.C. Frechtling
    The George Washington University, USA
  • Dr Twan Huybers
    University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Dr Stanislav Ivanov
    International University College, Bulgaria
  • Professor Carson L. Jenkins
    University of Strathclyde, UK
  • Professor Woo Gon (Woody) Kim
    Florida State University, USA
  • Professor Brian King
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
  • Professor Adele Ladkin
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Dr Peter Morrell
    Cranfield University, UK
  • Professor Yasuo Ohe
    Chiba University, Japan
  • Professor Andrea Saayman
    North-West University, South Africa
  • Dr Mondher Sahli
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
  • Dr Neelu Seetaram
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Professor Egon Smeral
    MODUL University, Austria
  • Professor Haiyan Song
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
  • Professor Natalie Stoeckl
    James Cook University, Australia
  • Dr Brian Terry
    Terry & Partners, UK
  • Professor John Westlake
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand

Vol 21 No 3 June 2015

Special focus: Modelling Tourist Behaviour As A Micro- Macro Nexus
Guest editors: Alvaro Matias and Peter Nijkamp

439 Introduction

441 A dynamic analysis of tourism determinants in Sicily

Davide Provenzano

455 Culture, product differentiation and market segmentation: a structural analysis of the motivation and satisfaction of tourists in Amsterdam

João Romão, Bart Neuts, Peter Nijkamp and Eveline Van Leeuwen

475 Tourist spending dynamics in the Algarve: a cross-sectional analysis

Jaime Serra, Antónia Correia and Paulo M.M. Rodrigues

501 Measuring pattern, amplitude and timing differences between monetary and non-monetary seasonal factors of tourism – the case of Aruba

Jorge Ridderstaat and Peter Nijkamp

527 Keynesian policies for tourism: taxation without coordination

Guido Candela, Massimiliano Castellani and Maurizio Mussoni

Other papers:

543 Assessing a Tourism Satellite Account: a programme for ascertaining conformance with United Nations standards

Cristi Frent, and Douglas C. Frechtling

561 The demand for winter sports: empirical evidence for the largest French ski- lift operator

Martin Falk

581 Does internal migration affect Italian domestic tourism? A panel data analysis

Carla Massidda and Romano Piras

601 ICZM and WTP of stakeholders for beach conservation: policymaking suggestions from an Italian case study

Silva Marzetti Dall’aste Brandolini and Marta Disegna

629 Determinants of touristic attraction in Portuguese regions and their impact on GDP

Diana C. Neves, António J. Fernandes and Elisabeth T. Pereira

649 An estimation of the contribution of the international meeting industry to the Korean national economy based on input–output analysis

Dae-Kwan Kim, Hak-Jun Kim, Sang-Min Lee, Yeongbae Choe and Soo-Yeop Song

669 Research note: Does method of payment affect total trip expenditure?

Christer Thrane

677 Research note: An analysis of tourists’ expenditure in the Russian resort destinations

Alexandr Vetitnev

685 Research note: Macroeconomic impacts of the tourism industry and the contemporaneous feedback effect – an Australian case study

Taha Chaiechi, Josephine Pryce and Abhishek Bhati

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Title: A dynamic analysis of tourism determinants in Sicily

Author(s): Davide Provenzano

Abstract: This study provides an initial analysis of the key determinants of tourism in Sicily. In doing so, it responds to the general lack of a scientific approach in the study and management of tourism in Sicily. By mixing a gravity approach and system dynamics methodology, the attractiveness of Sicily is examined, taking into account both structural and promotional aspects that might affect tourism demand. The results strongly suggest that the island’s natural and cultural resources, the road infrastructure and the urban environment are important determinants of tourism demand in Sicily. The findings may be useful for local authorities involved in the development of tourism, and represent a starting point for further research dealing with future trends.

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Title: Culture, product differentiation and market segmentation: a structural analysis of the motivation and satisfaction of tourists in Amsterdam

Author(s): João Romão, Bart Neuts, Peter Nijkamp and Eveline Van Leeuwen

Abstract: The varied supply of tourism services – with particular emphasis on tangible and intangible cultural aspects – corresponds ideally to visitors’ characteristics and wishes. This paper considers a major tourist destination, such as Amsterdam, as an export-oriented multi-product company, characterized by spatial and functional market segmentation and monopolistic competition reflected in product differentiation. Urban branding and attractiveness may favour tourist destination loyalty. The complex decision web of motivation and satisfaction of tourists in Amsterdam is analysed with a structural equations model (SEM). The authors find that different tourist profiles, in terms of personal characteristics and motivations, can significantly impact the satisfaction received from tourism services. Furthermore, and most interestingly, the results suggest that satisfaction does not necessarily lead to improved destination loyalty, but is contingent on the source of satisfaction. In this case, satisfaction resulting from tangible or intangible cultural sources has clearly different implications for loyalty, with relevant managerial implications.

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Title: Tourist spending dynamics in the Algarve: a cross-sectional analysis

Author(s): Jaime Serra, Antónia Correia and Paulo M.M. Rodrigues

Abstract: This paper assesses the determinants of international tourists’ spending in the Algarve from 2007 to 2010. Based on a sample of 15,542 observations a cross-section model was estimated using ordinary least squares. The results reveal that a combination of socio-demographic, behavioural and motivation variables explain the spending patterns of international tourists in the Algarve. Analysis of the data indicates that tourist motivations related to accommodation facilities, cultural and historical resources, gastronomy, hospitality, prices and sightseeing tours positively affect tourists’ spending. Moreover, the findings provide evidence that, over the years, the most loyal markets in Algarve reveal changing patterns in their spending behaviour. Destination management authorities should be aware of this spending behaviour of second-generation sun and sand visitors and should formulate strategies accordingly. Policy and managerial recommendations are discussed.

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Title: Measuring pattern, amplitude and timing differences between monetary and non-monetary seasonal factors of tourism – the case of Aruba

Author(s): Jorge Ridderstaat and Peter Nijkamp

Abstract: Seasonality is a frequent and important occurrence in the tourism industry, with concurrent effects on both the financial and volume flows of tourism. The purpose of this study is to measure pattern, amplitude and timing differences between the seasonal factors of monetary and non-monetary indicators of tourism development in Aruba. The study contributes to filling the gap in the literature on the dynamics in the co-movement of these two types of seasonal factors, with the simultaneous incorporation of three measurement dimensions of this relationship. The methodology involves decomposing time series on both stay-over tourism and tourism expenditure using the Census X-12 technique, with the subsequent calculation of Pearson’s correlation coefficients, ratios of amplitudes and timing differentials of peaks and troughs. The results show important differences in the pattern, amplitude and timing of the seasonal factors.

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Title: Keynesian policies for tourism: taxation without coordination

Author(s): Guido Candela, Massimiliano Castellani and Maurizio Mussoni

Abstract: In this paper the authors investigate the effect of a Keynesian policy in tourism destinations where tourism products are mainly sold through ‘direct sales’ (decentralized solution) and the tourism market equilibrium is characterized by sticky prices and unemployment (coordination failure); thus the conditions for a Keynesian demand policy are verified. This policy is a Pareto improving solution with respect to the organization of sales by tour operators or destination managers (centralized solution), since tourism firms are not worse-off in terms of profits and there is an increase of tourism production as well as of employment.

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Title: Assessing a Tourism Satellite Account: a programme for ascertaining conformance with United Nations standards

Author(s): Cristi Frent, and Douglas C. Frechtling

Abstract: The Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) is the method for measuring the economic contribution of tourism to a nation’s economy approved by the United Nations and other authoritative international organizations. While a considerable number of countries have developed TSAs, no programme has been proposed for determining how closely a given TSA conforms to the United Nations standards. The purpose of this paper is to present a programme for ascertaining the consistency of a given TSA with the United Nations standards and to apply this programme to a long-standing TSA, the United States Travel and Tourism Satellite Account (USTTSA). The results of this application are summarized and differences between the USTTSA and the United Nations standards are highlighted. The authors find that the programme is comprehensive, feasible in application and can improve the development, interpretation and comparisons of TSAs across countries.

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Title: The demand for winter sports: empirical evidence for the largest French ski-lift operator

Author(s): Martin Falk

Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of long-run winter tourism demand for French ski resorts. The data are based on skier visits to the largest ski-lift operator in the world (Compagnie des Alpes) for the winter seasons 1993/1994 to 2011/2012. Using dynamic panel data models for six ski resorts, the study finds relatively low income and price elasticities in absolute terms, with long-run elasticities of 0.64 and –0.40, respectively. Furthermore, the study finds that snow depth measured at the weather station Col de Porte – located at the medium elevation of 1,325 metres above sea level – is a significant predictor of skier days in the high-elevation ski areas. However, the magnitude of the effect of poor snow years is very small: on average, low-snow winter seasons (such as 1989/1990 or 2006/2007) will lead to a reduction in skier visits of about 2.5%. The results are not sensitive with respect to the measurement and timing of snow depth.

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Title: Does internal migration affect Italian domestic tourism? A panel data analysis

Author(s): Carla Massidda and Romano Piras

Abstract: The authors propose a dynamic panel data investigation into the role of interregional migration in Italian domestic tourism demand, using three panel estimators characterized by different homogeneity assumptions imposed on the parameters. A standard cointegration analysis is performed before proceeding to panel regressions. The results provide ample support for a strong positive relationship between per capita domestic tourism nights and per capita internal migration stock. This evidence extends the migration–tourism nexus, already established at the international level, to the intra-national scale and reinforces the idea that host regions should not overlook the role of migration when designing their tourism policies.

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Title: ICZM and WTP of stakeholders for beach conservation: policymaking suggestions from an Italian case study

Author(s): Silva Marzetti Dall’aste Brandolini and Marta Disegna

Abstract: In accordance with integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), private stakeholders could be asked to pay for the benefits from beach conservation projects. Since a private contribution is measured by the amount of other goods a person is willing to give up for beach quality, it can be solicited in monetary terms or, when possible, in other forms, such as specific works. In this paper, by analysing the results of two surveys in Italy concerning stakeholders’ perceptions of ICZM and their willingness to pay for these benefits, suggestions for beach management are provided to policymakers. One survey focuses on beach visitors who are asked to pay in monetary terms, while the other focuses on sunbathing establishment managers, who are asked to pay not only in monetary terms but also through beach works. The results show that the majority of these stakeholders are fully or partially aware of what ICZM is, and are unwilling to pay. However, regression analysis of those willing to pay suggests that promoting an information and education campaign about ICZM may be important if stakeholders’ probability of paying is to be increased.

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Title: Determinants of touristic attraction in Portuguese regions and their impact on GDP

Author(s): Diana C. Neves, António J. Fernandes and Elisabeth T. Pereira

Abstract: The tourism sector is considered a powerful stimulator of national economies because it affects those economic sectors associated with it, and at the same time creates jobs, increases domestic demand, contributes positively to the balance of payments and allows a better reallocation of wealth. Recognizing this importance, it becomes relevant to investigate the impact of tourism in Portugal at the regional level in order to compare the different Portuguese regions and identify their determinants of attraction. After characterizing the Portuguese tourism market, the authors undertake an empirical analysis, based on a panel data analysis for the Portuguese regions classified by NUTs II and for the period 1990–2007. The results suggest that Lisbon is the region that contributes most to Portuguese GDP because its tourism product is more differentiated.

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Title: An estimation of the contribution of the international meeting industry to the Korean national economy based on input–output analysis

Author(s): Dae-Kwan Kim, Hak-Jun Kim, Sang-Min Lee, Yeongbae Choe and Soo-Yeop Song

Abstract: This paper presents the contribution of the international meeting industry to the Korean national economy. To obtain more accurate results, the study adopted three improvements over previous research: consideration of both supply and demand; direct expenditure surveys of participants and hosts; and re-categorization of related business sectors. The results of the input–output analysis showed that per capita expenditure for international and domestic participants was US$2,432.4 and US$459.3, respectively, and the per capita average budget was US$562.1. Based on these findings, the total contribution of the international meeting industry to the Korean economy exceeds US$1,343.2 million in output, US$236.6 million in personal income, US$589.3 million in value added, US$61.5 million in tax revenue and 16,336 full-time-equivalent jobs. These results provide two key implications, providing evidence of the importance of both the supply and demand sides and the relative importance of each sub-industry for increasing economic benefit.

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Title: Research note: Does method of payment affect total trip expenditure?

Author(s): Christer Thrane

Abstract: Method of payment – debit card, credit card or cash – is known to affect consumer spending on various items. The purpose of this study is to scrutinize the relationship between the method of payment and the total trip expenditure of Norwegian winter tourists. There are two main findings: (a) credit card and debit card users – the so-called ‘plastic money’ segments – spend more money in total on their trip than cash users; (b) of the two plastic money segments, credit card users are the bigger spenders. The scholarly and strategic implications are offered.

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Title: Research note: An analysis of tourists’ expenditure in the Russian resort destinations

Author(s): Alexandr Vetitnev

Abstract: This study examines tourists’ expenditure in the context of Russian resort destinations. The findings indicate that the income and age of travellers, as well as type of accommodation, party size, length of stay, distance travelled, sources for payment, travel organization mode and satisfaction rate are significant factors affecting travellers’ expenditure. The impact of some of these factors was not directly evident, but manifested itself through the duration of stay. Tourists’ spending patterns were different in the various resorts studied. The main hypotheses of the study were confirmed using structural equation modelling.

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Title: Research note: Macroeconomic impacts of the tourism industry and the contemporaneous feedback effect – an Australian case study

Author(s): Taha Chaiechi, Josephine Pryce and Abhishek Bhati

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate methods for analysing the dynamic impact of the tourism sector on key drivers of economic growth for destinations in Australia, while allowing for simultaneity of economic variables. The tourism sector is captured through the proxy of ‘tourism receipts’. In addition, investment and productivity growth are selected as sources of economic growth, in accordance with post-Keynesian growth theory. The paper uses time series quarterly data, covering the period 1995:Q1–2011:Q4, and employs time series estimation techniques, including structural vector autoregressive modelling and impulse response analysis, to describe the macroeconomic responses to sudden shocks in the tourism sector. The results indicate that the growth benefits of an increase in tourist expenditure are positive and statistically significant. Moreover, as suggested by the analysis of impulse response functions, a positive shock to tourist expenditure provides positive, substantial and rather long-lived implications regarding productivity and investment decisions.

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