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The business and finance of tourism and recreation

ISSN 1354-8166 (print); 2044-0375 (online)


Editor: Stephen Wanhill,
Professor of Tourism Economics,
University of Limerick,
and Emeritus Professor of Tourism
Research, Bournemouth University

This journal is covered by Thomson Reuters in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences. Impact Factor: 0.573. 5-Year Impact Factor: 0.901. (2013 Journal Citation Reports® Social Sciences Edition, Thomson Reuters, 2014.)

This journal is indexed in Scopus

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Editorial coverage

Tourism Economics, published quarterly, covers the business aspects of tourism in the wider context. It takes account of constraints on development, such as social and community interests and the sustainable use of tourism and recreation resources, and inputs into the production process. The definition of tourism used includes tourist trips taken for all purposes, embracing both stay and day visitors.

Articles address the components of the tourism product (accommodation; restaurants; merchandizing; attractions; transport; entertainment; tourist activities); and the economic organization of tourism at micro and macro levels (market structure; role of public/private sectors; community interests; strategic planning; marketing; finance; economic development).

Core subject areas:

  • forecasting
  • public policy (strategies, fiscal and other intervention policies)
  • economic development
  • market structures and competition
  • sources of capital provision
  • labour economics (quality and productivity issues)
  • business aspects of marketing
  • private and public sector interaction
  • economic appraisal at sector and project level
  • mathematical modelling
  • developments in the components of the product
  • structure of the tourism industry (including such issues as ownership, corporate size, international operations, etc)
  • regional economic effects of tourism developments
  • analysis of international data on tourism, such as WTO statistics

Submissions - Notes for authors

Please send papers by e-mail to Professor Stephen Wanhill, c/o  JEdmondson(at)ippublishing.com (this address is obtainable by clicking on Professor Wanhill's name in the preceding sentence). Receipt of your paper will be acknowledged by e-mail and it will then be forwarded to Professor Wanhill.

Length and presentation of contributions

 Papers will normally be about 5,000 words long. However, this is by no means inflexible and substantially shorter or longer papers will be considered where appropriate. Research notes and shorter report-style pieces will also be considered (1,500-2,000 words).

Submissions should be double-spaced. They can be sent to the editor either by e-mail or post c/o the publisher (details above). The publisher will send an acknowledgement on receipt of submissions. Electronic versions must be in Word (postal submissions should include one hard copy and a disk or CD).

The title page should contain full names and addresses of the authors and their affiliations. As this page will not be forwarded to referees, the title of the article (without authors) should be repeated on the first page of the text.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100-150 words. Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper. The text should be organized under appropriate cross-headings (not numbered paragraphs) and where possible these should be not more than 800 words apart.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author's surname (or authors' surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 1998). For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

Articles: Figini, P., and Vici, L. (2010), ‘Tourism and growth in a cross section of countries’, Tourism Economics, Vol 16, No 4, December 2010.

Books: Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., and Dwyer, W. (2010), Tourism Economics and Policy, Channel View, Bristol.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables and illustrations should be presented separately at the end of the text. Authors should bear in mind that, in the print version of the journal, illustrations will be reproduced in black and white.

Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.

Refereeing

All papers, other than research notes and reports, will be subject to a 'double blind' review - i.e. the anonymity of both authors and referees will be maintained throughout the refereeing process. There will be a minimum of two referees for each paper. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from industry) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.

Copyright

Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Stephen Wanhill, Professor of Tourism Economics, University of Limerick, and Emeritus Professor of Tourism Research, Bournemouth University, c/o IP Publishing Ltd, 4th Floor, Hamilton House, Mabledon Place, Bloomsbury, London WC1H 9BB, UK.

Special Advisers
  • Professor John Fletcher, International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research,
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Professor William C. Gartner, Tourism Center,
    University of Minnesota, USA
  • Professor J. Mazanec, MODUL University
    Vienna, Austria
  • Professor Lindsay W. Turner, School of Applied Economics
    Victoria University, Australia

Editorial Advisory Board

  • Professor Eugeni Aguiló
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
  • Dr Albert Assaf
    University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA
  • Professor Esteban Bardolet
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
  • Professor Carlos Pestana Barros
    Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Professor Juan Gabriel Brida
    Free University of Bolzano, Italy
  • Professor Nevenka Čavlek
    University of Zagreb, Croatia
  • Professor Jim Deegan
    University of Limerick, Ireland
  • Dr Sarath Divisekera
    Victoria University of Technology, Australia
  • Professor Larry Dwyer
    University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Professor Peter Forsyth
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor D.C. Frechtling
    The George Washington University, USA
  • Dr Twan Huybers
    University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Dr Stanislav Ivanov
    International University College, Bulgaria
  • Professor Carson L. Jenkins
    University of Strathclyde, UK
  • Professor Woo Gon (Woody) Kim
    Florida State University, USA
  • Professor Brian King
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
  • Professor Adele Ladkin
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Dr Peter Morrell
    Cranfield University, UK
  • Professor Yasuo Ohe
    Chiba University, Japan
  • Professor Andrea Saayman
    North-West University, South Africa
  • Dr Mondher Sahli
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
  • Dr Neelu Seetaram
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Professor Egon Smeral
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research and Modul University, Austria
  • Professor Haiyan Song
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
  • Professor Natalie Stoeckl
    James Cook University, Australia
  • Dr Brian Terry
    Terry & Partners, UK
  • Professor John Westlake
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand

Vol 20 No 6 December 2014

1159 The effect of price dispersion on hotel performance

Woo Gon Kim, Meehee Cho, Daekwan Kim and Geon-Cheol Shin

1180 The Thea Sinclair Award for Journal Article Excellence, 2014

1181 Who is willing to pay to see the Big 7?

Melville Saayman and Andrea Saayman

1199 Valuing natural and non-natural attributes for a national forest park using a choice experiment method

Erda Wang, Jianhua Wei and Huiyuan Lu

1215 A hedonic pricing model of lift tickets for US alpine ski areas: examining the influence of crowding

Robert C. Fonner and Robert P. Berrens

1235 The crowding-out effects of Chinese tourists on inbound tourism in Taiwan

Chin-Mei Chou, Shu Fen Hsieh and Hsi Peng Tseng

1253 Market potential, industrial density and revenue of tourism firms in China

Yong Yang

1277 Assessing the economic impact of three major sport events in China: the perspective of attendees

Haiyan Huang, Luke Lunhua Mao, Suk-Kyu Kim and James J. Zhang

1297 Impact of socio-demographics, fuel price and airfare on the domestic overnight travel decision in Australia

Kwok Pan Pang

1319 Shopping tourism in Hungary during the period of the economic crisis

Gábor Michalkó, Tamara Rátz, Mátyás Hinek and Mihály Tömöri

1337 The potential of local KIBS companies as a determinant of tourism development in Krakow

Krzysztof Borodako, Jadwiga Berbeka and Michał Rudnicki

1349 Research note: Forecasting film-induced tourism – the Dolphin Tale case

Maria Luisa Corton and Maling Ebrahimpour

1357 Research note: Contribution of foreign direct investment to the tourism sector in Fiji: an empirical study

T.K. Jayaraman, Hong Chen and Markand Bhatt

1363 Index to Volume 20, 2014

1368 Corrigendum

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Title: The effect of price dispersion on hotel performance

Author(s): Woo Gon Kim, Meehee Cho, Daekwan Kim and Geon-Cheol Shin

Abstract: Previous studies have concentrated on comparing price dispersion and price level between offline and online channels. The primary objectives of this study are to (a) investigate the relationships between offline price dispersion and a company’s performance, (b) examine the relationships between online price dispersion and a company’s performance and (c) investigate the effect of price dispersion between offline and online channels on a company’s performance. The findings show that a decrease in online price dispersion has a positive impact on a hotel performance. Therefore, to enhance hotel performance, hotel marketers should manage pricing strategies for multiple online channels; in addition, hotel companies should pursue rate parity policies across different online channels. Conversely, the results show a positive relationship between offline price dispersion and hotel performance. It is suggested that customization and bundling strategies for offline channels enhance the overall profitability of hotels. The findings advance knowledge of consumers’ purchasing behaviour and sellers’ pricing strategies.

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Title: Who is willing to pay to see the Big 7?

Author(s): Melville Saayman and Andrea Saayman

Abstract: This article investigates the non-consumptive, or appreciative value of the ‘Big 7’ and identifies the variables that influence willingness to pay (WTP). Addo Elephant National Park in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, is one of few places in the world where tourists can view all seven species: lion, buffalo, rhinoceros, leopard, elephant, southern right whale and great white shark. Two surveys were conducted, using the same questionnaire, one during summer and one during winter. A total of 232 completed questionnaires were used in the Heckman model selection procedure. The findings revealed that, although a variety of socio-demographic, behavioural and motivational factors influence the amount respondents are willing to pay, there is a clear distinction between the determinants for land species compared to marine species. This poses challenges for the marketing of and establishment of the Big 7 as a brand.

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Title: Valuing natural and non-natural attributes for a national forest park using a choice experiment method

Author(s): Erda Wang, Jianhua Wei and Huiyuan Lu

Abstract: With demand increasing for nature-based tourism, forest park authorities and site managers need to understand the trade-off between the level of natural wilderness protection and the visitor experience. The authors use a choice experiment to examine which kind of development profiles are worth considering and which paths not to follow. They focus on the mixed attributes of natural resources and historical relics, and the management services provided by Lushunkou National Forest Park in China, which is a popular recreation site attracting a large number of visitors annually. The results indicate that the expected number of visitors to the park is the most important characteristic for visitors. However, a large increase or decrease in the number of visitors causes visitors’ welfare losses. Additionally, increasing the protection of the cultural and historical relics on the site is the second most highly valued feature for its visitors. Thus, the results show that the protection of forest wilderness and the recreational use of national parks can cause conflicting welfare effects if managed in inappropriate ways.

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Title: A hedonic pricing model of lift tickets for US alpine ski areas: examining the influence of crowding

Author(s): Robert C. Fonner and Robert P. Berrens

Abstract: This study applies the hedonic pricing model to lift ticket prices from 2011 for 181 alpine ski areas in the USA. Marginal implicit prices are estimated for a variety of ski area physical characteristics and skier amenities. While controlling for these other attributes, the analysis also investigates crowding effects in alpine downhill skiing. Increased crowding, approximated by additional skiers per hour per acre, is shown to raise lift ticket prices at first, before exerting a negative impact on lift ticket prices at high levels of crowding. The results provide evidence for the existence of both agglomeration and congestion effects in downhill skiing and support previous findings of non- linear crowding effects in other outdoor recreation activities.

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Title: The crowding-out effects of Chinese tourists on inbound tourism in Taiwan

Author(s): Chin-Mei Chou, Shu Fen Hsieh and Hsi Peng Tseng

Abstract: This study conducts multiple regression analysis to establish a forecasting model for the number of inbound tourists to Taiwan from different countries. Monte Carlo simulation is used to forecast the number of inbound tourists to Taiwan from different countries and to evaluate whether the opening-up to Chinese tourists has a crowding-out effect on tourism demand. The empirical results indicate that, except for Australia and the UK, the inbound tourists from the sampled countries suffered from varying degrees of crowding-out effect as a result of Taiwan’s opening-up to Chinese tourists. This is particularly noticeable with tourists from Korea, Singapore and the USA. In terms of regional effects, Asia is the most affected by the opening-up policy, while Europe and Oceania are less affected. However, the number of inbound tourists from different countries has not dropped, but shows an upward trend.

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Title: Market potential, industrial density and revenue of tourism firms in China

Author(s): Yong Yang

Abstract: China is a major source of empirical observations with which to test different hypotheses relative to tourism research. In this paper, the author constructs a spatial model of tourism industry development and, considering spatial distance, uses Chinese tourism panel data to analyse the relationship between market potential, industrial density and the revenue of tourism firms. The study provides evidence that tourism market potential and agglomeration density are statistically significant and quantitatively important in explaining the revenue of tourism firms. This finding is robust, controlling for input factor density and endogeneity using instrument variables. Tourism market potential is found to matter through the mechanisms promoted by new economic geography theory. The estimated coefficients are consistent with plausible values for the predication of the model.

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Title: Assessing the economic impact of three major sport events in China: the perspective of attendees

Author(s): Haiyan Huang, Luke Lunhua Mao, Suk-Kyu Kim and James J. Zhang

Abstract: This study assesses the economic impact of three major sport events – the Formula One Grand Prix (F1), the ATP World Tour Masters 1000 (ATP), and the Shanghai International Marathon (SIM) – on the host city in China. To that end, the authors estimate the amount of different types of attendees at the events, calculate the total expenditures generated by attendees, assess the new money inflow into the host economy and conduct an economic impact assessment via an input–output model using computer software. The results of this study confirm the notion that major sport events can be used as tools to increase the economic activities of the hosts. Furthermore, the study proposes a useful method of assessing the economic impact of sport events in non-consumer-driven economies, such as China.

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Title: Impact of socio-demographics, fuel price and airfare on the domestic overnight travel decision in Australia

Author(s): Kwok Pan Pang

Abstract: Domestic overnight travel is one of the most significant sectors in the Australian tourism industry. Understanding the extent to which the crucial factors influence tourists’ choice of overnight trip can be a key to successful marketing and strategic planning in the domestic travel industry. To understand the characteristics of the domestic overnight tourists, this paper analyses the data by means of a proposed new impact analysis approach, which overcomes some limitations of the conventional impact analysis approach. It also investigates how socio-demographic factors, fuel price and domestic airfares affect the probability of tourists opting for domestic overnight trips. Impact analysis is a method for analysing the association of the impact factor with the response variable in terms of estimated probability. This research demonstrates that household income, country of birth, life-cycle stage and home state are four of the most significant categories that generate the highest maximum impact on the overnight trip decision.

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Title: Shopping tourism in Hungary during the period of the economic crisis

Author(s): Gábor Michalkó, Tamara Rátz, Mátyás Hinek and Mihály Tömöri

Abstract: This paper analyses the impacts brought about by the economic crisis starting in 2007 on Hungarian shopping tourism. Considering the long-term symbiotic relationship of the national retail trade and international inbound tourism, the crisis, which has affected each segment of the national economy, has also influenced both the characteristics of tourist shopping and the structure and volume of retail trade, with an indirect impact on the country’s GDP. The study investigates the purchases of day-trippers arriving from neighbouring countries and focuses on changes that occurred between 2006 and 2010. The survey is based on the assumption that the sending markets have become more price- sensitive as a consequence of the crisis, and the changes brought about will be diverse, depending on the economic and social processes of each sending country. Demand is influenced by crisis management strategies, by the price–value ratio of goods and services available in the market, and by the business practices of retail companies. Based on secondary analysis of the databases of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office and the Hungarian National Bank, the paper provides an overview of how Hungarian shopping tourism was shaped by the above factors in the period of crisis.

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Title: The potential of local KIBS companies as a determinant of tourism development in Krakow

Author(s): Krzysztof Borodako, Jadwiga Berbeka and Michał Rudnicki

Abstract: Destinations compete with each other using production factors generated internally or purchased externally. One factor usually outsourced is knowledge. Key providers of this asset are firms offering knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS); the strength of Krakow’s position on the tourism market could be significantly influenced by KIBS firms. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between the development in Krakow of tourism, on the one hand, and KIBS firms, on the other. A review of the literature confirmed that KIBS are a determinant of the city’s potential (including that of the tourism sector). Analysis of tourism supply, represented by the growth dynamic in the hotel segment, shows a higher increase than in tourism movement, but significantly lower than in many other KIBS subsectors. In this context the competitiveness and innovation of Krakow’s tourism companies could be boosted by knowledge and expertise from KIBS companies.

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Title: Research note: Forecasting film-induced tourism – the Dolphin Tale case

Author(s): Maria Luisa Corton and Maling Ebrahimpour

Abstract: Dolphin Tale is a major motion picture released by Warner Brothers in 2011. The authors forecast the number of visitors to the film location, including the film-induced tourism effect originated by Dolphin Tale. They use intervention analysis to measure this effect, with the pre-film series forecasted trend as the comparison baseline instead of the usual linear trend. They address the proper modelling of the series seasonality in the presence of an abrupt increase in visitors immediately after the premiere and a lack of data on the subsequent months. They find that the film induced a 51% increase in the mean level of visitors to the location.

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Title: Research note: Contribution of foreign direct investment to the tourism sector in Fiji: an empirical study

Author(s): T.K. Jayaraman, Hong Chen and Markand Bhatt

Abstract: In the midst of declining external demand due to the world economic downturn since 2008, the tourism sector has emerged as a major source of support to the South Pacific island countries, including Fiji. Tourists from the region’s two advanced economies, Australia and New Zealand, find Fiji a more affordable tourist destination than distant European and Asian holiday resorts. The development of the tourism sector in Fiji owes much to foreign direct investment (FDI) in hotels, resorts and other infrastructural facilities. This paper uses bounds cointegration technique and investigates the contribution of FDI to Fiji’s tourism sector. The analysis identifies positive associations between FDI and tourism earnings as well as between currency depreciation and tourism earnings.

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