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The business and finance of tourism and recreation

ISSN 1354-8166 (print); 2044-0375 (online)


Editor: Stephen Wanhill,
Professor of Tourism Economics,
University of Limerick,
and Emeritus Professor of Tourism
Research, Bournemouth University

This journal is covered by Thomson Reuters in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences. Impact Factor: 0.573. 5-Year Impact Factor: 0.901. (2013 Journal Citation Reports® Social Sciences Edition, Thomson Reuters, 2014.)

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Editorial coverage

Tourism Economics, published quarterly, covers the business aspects of tourism in the wider context. It takes account of constraints on development, such as social and community interests and the sustainable use of tourism and recreation resources, and inputs into the production process. The definition of tourism used includes tourist trips taken for all purposes, embracing both stay and day visitors.

Articles address the components of the tourism product (accommodation; restaurants; merchandizing; attractions; transport; entertainment; tourist activities); and the economic organization of tourism at micro and macro levels (market structure; role of public/private sectors; community interests; strategic planning; marketing; finance; economic development).

Core subject areas:

  • forecasting
  • public policy (strategies, fiscal and other intervention policies)
  • economic development
  • market structures and competition
  • sources of capital provision
  • labour economics (quality and productivity issues)
  • business aspects of marketing
  • private and public sector interaction
  • economic appraisal at sector and project level
  • mathematical modelling
  • developments in the components of the product
  • structure of the tourism industry (including such issues as ownership, corporate size, international operations, etc)
  • regional economic effects of tourism developments
  • analysis of international data on tourism, such as WTO statistics

Submissions - Notes for authors

Please send papers, either by e-mail or post, to Professor Stephen Wanhill, c/o IP Publishing Ltd, 258 Belsize Road, London NW6 4BT, UK. Please note that e-mail submissions should be sent to JEdmondson(at)ippublishing.com (this address is obtainable by clicking on Professor Wanhill's name in the preceding sentence). Receipt of your paper will be acknowledged by e-mail and it will then be forwarded to Professor Wanhill.

Length and presentation of contributions

 Papers will normally be about 5,000 words long. However, this is by no means inflexible and substantially shorter or longer papers will be considered where appropriate. Research notes and shorter report-style pieces will also be considered (1,500-2,000 words).

Submissions should be double-spaced. They can be sent to the editor either by e-mail or post c/o the publisher (details above). The publisher will send an acknowledgement on receipt of submissions. Electronic versions must be in Word (postal submissions should include one hard copy and a disk or CD).

The title page should contain full names and addresses of the authors and their affiliations. As this page will not be forwarded to referees, the title of the article (without authors) should be repeated on the first page of the text.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100-150 words. Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper. The text should be organized under appropriate cross-headings (not numbered paragraphs) and where possible these should be not more than 800 words apart.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author's surname (or authors' surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 1998). For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

Articles: Figini, P., and Vici, L. (2010), ‘Tourism and growth in a cross section of countries’, Tourism Economics, Vol 16, No 4, December 2010.

Books: Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., and Dwyer, W. (2010), Tourism Economics and Policy, Channel View, Bristol.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables and illustrations should be presented separately at the end of the text. Authors should bear in mind that, in the print version of the journal, illustrations will be reproduced in black and white.

Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.

Refereeing

All papers, other than research notes and reports, will be subject to a 'double blind' review - i.e. the anonymity of both authors and referees will be maintained throughout the refereeing process. There will be a minimum of two referees for each paper. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from industry) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.

Copyright

Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Stephen Wanhill, Professor of Tourism Economics, University of Limerick, and Emeritus Professor of Tourism Research, Bournemouth University, c/o IP Publishing Ltd, 258 Belsize Road, London NW6 4BT, UK.

Special Advisers
  • Professor John Fletcher, International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research,
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Professor William C. Gartner, Tourism Center,
    University of Minnesota, USA
  • Professor J. Mazanec, MODUL University
    Vienna, Austria
  • Professor Lindsay W. Turner, School of Applied Economics
    Victoria University, Australia

Editorial Advisory Board

  • Professor Eugeni Aguiló
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
  • Dr Albert Assaf
    University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA
  • Professor Esteban Bardolet
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
  • Professor Carlos Pestana Barros
    Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Professor Eberhard Bischoff
    University of Wales Swansea, UK
  • Professor Juan Gabriel Brida
    Free University of Bolzano, Italy
  • Professor Nevenka Čavlek
    University of Zagreb, Croatia
  • Professor Jim Deegan
    University of Limerick, Ireland
  • Dr Sarath Divisekera
    Victoria University of Technology, Australia
  • Professor Larry Dwyer
    University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Professor Peter Forsyth
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor D.C. Frechtling
    The George Washington University, USA
  • Dr Twan Huybers
    University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Dr Stanislav Ivanov
    International University College, Bulgaria
  • Professor Carson L. Jenkins
    University of Strathclyde, UK
  • Professor Woo Gon (Woody) Kim
    Florida State University, USA
  • Professor Brian King
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
  • Professor Adele Ladkin
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Dr Peter Morrell
    Cranfield University, UK
  • Professor Yasuo Ohe
    Chiba University, Japan
  • Professor Andrea Saayman
    North-West University, South Africa
  • Dr Mondher Sahli
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
  • Dr Neelu Seetaram
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Professor Egon Smeral
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research and Modul University, Austria
  • Professor Haiyan Song
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
  • Professor Natalie Stoeckl
    James Cook University, Australia
  • Dr Brian Terry
    Terry & Partners, UK
  • Professor John Westlake
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand

Vol 20 No 5 October 2014

923 Tourism resource development and long-term economic growth: a resource curse hypothesis approach

Taotao Deng, Mulan Ma and Jianhua Cao

939 Pricing competition and channel coordination in the tourism supply chain with optional tours

Qiang Guo, Ye Shi, Junfeng Dong, Xiaolong Guo and Chris K. Anderson

961 Trade effects of specialization in tourism: an inter-regional input–output model of the Balearic Islands

Juan Soulie and Elisabeth Valle

987 Determinants of Spanish regions’ tourism performance: a two-stage, double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis

Bernardino Benito, José Solana and Pilar López

1013 Advertising, price and hotel service quality: a signalling perspective

Hsien- Hung Chiu and Chiang-Ming Chen

1027 Franchising effects on the lodging industry: optimal franchising proportion in terms of profitability and intangible value

Joonho Moon and Amit Sharma

1047 Economic values of agritourism to visitors: a multi-destination hurdle travel cost model of demand

Rebecca Hill, John Loomis, Dawn Thilmany and Martha Sullins

1067 Estimating tournament effects on sportfishing demand

John R. McKean, Donn Johnson and R.G. Taylor

1087 Understanding consumer responses to travel websites from online shopping value and flow experience perspectives

Cedric Hsi-Jui Wu, Hung-Jen Li and Chung-Wen Chiu

1105 Research note: The growth of Internet purchases and the travel trade

Marco Ginanneschi

1117 Research note: Exploring the effect of tourism on economic growth in the Spanish provinces and autonomous communities, 1999–2008

Mª De La Palma Gómez-Calero, José Antonio Molina and María Del P. Pablo-Romero

1125 Research note: The economic value and roles of rural festivals in Japan

Kenji Okubo, Cornelis Gardebroek and Wim Heijman

1133 Research note: Exploring the determinants of cruise passengers’ expenditure at ports of call in Uruguay

Juan Gabriel Brida, Vincenzo Fasone, Raffaele Scuderi and Sandra Zapata-Aguirre

1145 Research note: An analysis of cruise ship impact on local hotel demand – an event study in Charleston, South Carolina

Frank Hefner, Brumby McLeod and John Crotts

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Title: Tourism resource development and long-term economic growth: a resource curse hypothesis approach

Author(s): Taotao Deng, Mulan Ma and Jianhua Cao

Abstract: The paper proposes a resource curse hypothesis approach to analyse the instability of tourism-led growth. Using panel data on China’s 30 provinces over the period 1987–2010, this study examines the direct and indirect effects of tourism on long-term economic growth. Four transmission channels widely held in the resource curse hypothesis are applied in the tourism industry: Dutch disease effect, crowding-out effect, deterioration of institutional quality and volatility of resource trade. The empirical results show that even in the non-tourism-dependent economies there is a possibility that the tourism resource curse will occur in the long term. Tourism resource development tends to reduce economic growth, mainly through crowding out human capital. A tourism boom seems to have a crowding-out effect on industrial production; however, the effect is small and insignificant in the large non-tourism-dependent economies. The physical investment channel is identified as the most important positive transmission channel through which tourism activity exerts more influence on growth.

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Title: Pricing competition and channel coordination in the tourism supply chain with optional tours

Author(s): Qiang Guo, Ye Shi, Junfeng Dong, Xiaolong Guo and Chris K. Anderson

Abstract: The authors consider a tourism supply chain that consists of a tour operator in the source market and a local operator at the destination. The tour product is composed of predesigned tours and optional tours. Consumers are sensitive to the price and the availability of optional tours, represented as the ratio of optional tours. The authors analyse how the ratio of optional tours to predesigned tours affects each player’s equilibrium decisions given three different consumer attitudes towards optional tours. They find that when the channel is coordinated and the ratio of optional tours is sufficiently large, the local operator may reduce commissions. To curb the impacts of lowering commissions, the authors introduce a tax mechanism aimed at optional tours. Numeral examples are provided to illustrate the pricing impacts of optional tours.

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Title: Trade effects of specialization in tourism: an inter-regional input–output model of the Balearic Islands

Author(s): Juan Soulie and Elisabeth Valle

Abstract: The authors construct an inter-regional input–output model that combines both national and regional data to isolate the effects of changes in demand by their regional nature using an additive decomposition. The model is used to quantify the backward linkages of the top industries in the Balearic Islands (a European region heavily specializing in tourism) with other industries, both within the region and in the rest of Spain. The results confirm the importance of local industries in terms of backward linkage effects, but also reveal that only 55% of these effects stay in the region, while the rest leak out to the rest of the country due to the extraordinary dependency on supplies created by this specialization.

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Title: Determinants of Spanish regions’ tourism performance: a two-stage, double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis

Author(s): Bernardino Benito, José Solana and Pilar López

Abstract: Despite the current international financial crisis, the tourism sector has managed to maintain high levels of activity. Against a backdrop of weak demand and stiff competition, efficiency has come to the fore as a key issue, especially in consolidated markets, such as Spain, where hopes that the sector will lead the way to economic recovery contrast with statements from the Competitiveness Monitor of the World Travel & Tourism Council that Spain is losing its competitiveness. In this article, the two- stage Simar and Wilson procedure is used to estimate the effect of a group of nine environmental factors on robust data envelopment analysis (DEA) estimates which act as a proxy of destination competitiveness for the Spanish autonomous communities (or regions) between 2002 and 2010. A brief discussion in terms of D- and E-attraction and cluster D-attraction is also included. The article contributes to the destination industry literature by adopting an approach that has not hitherto been applied to Spain.

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Title: Advertising, price and hotel service quality: a signalling perspective

Author(s): Hsien-Hung Chiu and Chiang-Ming Chen

Abstract: This study investigates two main issues: the relationship between advertising expenditure and service quality, and the relationship between price and service quality in the hotel industry. The authors consider an asymmetric-information environment, in which consumers are uncertain about service quality, and address the above issues from a signalling perspective. Building on signalling and counter-signalling theory in economics, the authors propose a number of testable hypotheses and conduct an empirical study using data for Taiwanese international tourist hotels. The empirical results support the hypothesis that the advertising–quality relationship is inverted-U shaped, whereas the price–quality relationship is positive and monotonic. Hence, higher prices may signal higher service quality, whereas higher advertising expenditure does not necessarily signal higher service quality.

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Title: Franchising effects on the lodging industry: optimal franchising proportion in terms of profitability and intangible value

Author(s): Joonho Moon and Amit Sharma

Abstract: Franchising in the hospitality industry, particularly in the lodging business, has been an extensively studied topic. Yet the answers to critical questions have eluded researchers and practitioners: is franchising in the lodging industry profitable and a value-creating strategy? Moreover, what is the optimal proportion of franchising to attain certain financial outcomes? This study evaluates franchising in the lodging industry, and poses two key financial questions. Are franchised lodging firms more profitable and value-generating than non-franchised operations? And what is the optimal proportion of franchised and non-franchised units for a lodging firm to maximize its financial performance and value creation? The results of the two-way, random-effect regression model suggest that franchised lodging firms are more profitable than non-franchised firms. The study also finds that franchised firms create more intangible value than non-franchised firms. In addition, the authors identify optimal proportions of franchised and non-franchised properties that allow lodging firms to maximize profitability and intangible value. The results provide a critical perspective on the discussion of whether or not lodging firms should franchise and, if so, to what extent.

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Title: Economic values of agritourism to visitors: a multi-destination hurdle travel cost model of demand

Author(s): Rebecca Hill, John Loomis, Dawn Thilmany and Martha Sullins

Abstract: Farm-based recreation, or agritourism, is growing in the USA, raising new interest in the potential benefits for consumers/travellers and communities. This study utilizes a hurdle travel cost model to investigate the demand for and economic benefits of agritourism. The analysis includes an estimation of consumer surplus as one means to estimate the market size for this sector. The standard travel cost model assumes a single-purpose recreational trip; but, as is the case with a number of categories of tourism, this assumption may not hold for all agritourism outings as travellers often visit other destinations. This paper analyses and compares four different models, each using different methods to distinguish between multiple-destination and primary-purpose trips. The findings reveal that consumer surplus ranges from $93 to $164 per person per trip for primary purpose travellers. Implications for accurately estimating the market size of agritourism, as well as a broader set of recreational sectors, are discussed.

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Title: Estimating tournament effects on sportfishing demand

Author(s): John R. McKean, Donn Johnson and R.G. Taylor

Abstract: A two-step decision travel cost model is used to estimate the demand for sportfishing and to measure the effect of fishing tournaments on anglers’ willingness-to-pay on the Lower Hudson River. The endo-genous opportunity cost of angler travel time is incorporated in the demand function using a latent variable. The latent time value indicator is a count of the unique types of complementary and time-saving goods and services purchased during a fishing trip. Tournament fishing is valued at US$317 per angler per trip, compared to US$73 per angler per trip for other sportfishing.

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Title: Understanding consumer responses to travel websites from online shopping value and flow experience perspectives

Author(s): Cedric Hsi-Jui Wu, Hung-Jen Li and Chung-Wen Chiu

Abstract: As online travel shopping rapidly increases, consumer responses to travel websites need to be better understood. The authors integrate the perspectives of flow experience and perceived shopping value to explain those consumer responses and incorporate website design characteristics into their model. Data were collected from consumers with browsing or purchasing experiences on Taiwan’s travel websites. The results show that website attractiveness and interactivity have a positive influence on flow experience. Website reliability positively affects utilitarian value, whereas ease of use has no significant effect. Flow experience is positively associated with utilitarian value and consumer attitude towards the website; conversely, purchase intention from the website is not affected by flow experience. Furthermore, the findings reveal that perceived utilitarian value positively and significantly influences consumer attitude towards the website and purchase intention. These findings have both theoretical and practical implications.

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Title: Research note: The growth of Internet purchases and the travel trade

Author(s): Marco Ginanneschi

Abstract: The changes introduced by the Internet to travel agencies (TAs) and tour operators have been investigated for the last 15 years. Researchers have focused mainly on disintermediation and re- intermediation processes fostered by the Web and on their implications for the organization of agencies and sales management. However, the hypothesis that Internet diffusion may have a negative impact on the consistency of the travel agency sector still needs to be proven. Moving on from an analysis of the Italian situation, this study first attempts to reconstruct the ongoing trends at industry level in other European countries. It then explores the relationship between online travel purchases and TAs’ total frequency. The evidence gathered shows a significant degree of correlation between the two variables, suggesting that the growth of the online travel market can effectively prove to be a reduction of existing TAs.

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Title: Research note: Exploring the effect of tourism on economic growth in the Spanish provinces and autonomous communities, 1999–2008

Author(s): Mª De La Palma Gómez-Calero, José Antonio Molina and María Del P. Pablo-Romero

Abstract: The authors explore the extent to which tourism contributed to the economic growth of the different Spanish provinces and autonomous communities in the period 1999–2008. The results obtained by panel data analysis show that the elasticity of the provincial productivity with respect to tourism is equal to 0.10 when overnight stays of foreign tourists are taken as the indicator of provincial tourism, and 0.11 when total overnight stays are taken as the indicator. The results also show that the elasticity of the productivity of the autonomous communities with respect to tourism is slightly lower than the elasticity of the provincial productivity.

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Title: Research note: The economic value and roles of rural festivals in Japan

Author(s): Kenji Okubo, Cornelis Gardebroek and Wim Heijman

Abstract: This article studies the economic value and roles of rural festivals. The authors investigate the festivals of ‘Kuruma-ichi’ and ‘Suisha-matsuri’ in the Yamane area of Kuji city, Iwate prefecture, Japan. They estimate a travel demand model to infer the value of these festivals for visitors and apply the chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) method to analyse the reasons for visiting. The results indicate that the consumer surplus of these festivals is ¥3,627 (US$45.3) for a tourist per trip. From the CHAID analysis it follows that the annual frequency of visits depends on the opportunity for exchange among tourists and the local residents. It appears that the festivals are important occasions for the gathering of former residents in this depopulated and aged mountainous area.

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Title: Research note: Exploring the determinants of cruise passengers’ expenditure at ports of call in Uruguay

Author(s): Juan Gabriel Brida, Vincenzo Fasone, Raffaele Scuderi and Sandra Zapata-Aguirre

Abstract: Passengers disembarking from cruise ships at ports of call have significant economic effects on the host destination. This paper studies the determinants of cruise passengers’ spending while visiting two ports in Uruguay. Data from an official survey are used to investigate the likely determinants of expenditure in the 2011–2012 cruise season. The Heckit model suggests the presence of a decision process of purchasing that might be more ‘instinctive’ than is suggested by the findings of other papers for general tourism expenditure. The improvement of the economic effects of a cruise requires the formulation of appropriate marketing strategies according to the nationality of passengers. In addition, several findings indicate that such enhancement is more required in the port of Punta del Este, whose logistics do not facilitate the direct disembarkation of tourists to the port.

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Title: Research note: An analysis of cruise ship impact on local hotel demand – an event study in Charleston, South Carolina

Author(s): Frank Hefner, Brumby McLeod and John Crotts

Abstract: This study examines cruise passenger demand for hotel accommodation in Charleston, South Carolina, prior to embarkation and after debarkation. The findings reveal that cruise passengers are significant drivers of room night demand around embarkation and debarkation. In addition, cruise passenger demand for room nights was not isolated to non-tourist districts of the greater metropolitan area, suggesting that a cruise from Charleston was coupled with a short vacation. This research is particularly important to destination managers, port authorities, municipalities and other stakeholders as they examine and negotiate the frequency, type and timing of passenger cruise service that provides the most positive benefit for the community.

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