Vol 19 No 5 October 2013
Abstract: As a result of advances in ICT services, transportation and local development, among others, more destinations are competing to attract both national and international visitors. Globalization requires destinations to increase their competitiveness or risk losing out on tourist revenues. While the research into destination competitiveness and tourist loyalty is well founded, recent progress in e-services has opened up new opportunities for informing and attracting visitors. This paper examines the potential effects of e-services in an inclusive model of destination loyalty to the city of Leipzig in Germany. The results of the path analysis indicate possibilities for e-services to increase both satisfaction and loyalty, especially with regard to various tourist subgroups.
Abstract: The authors study the probability of taking a vacation, foreign or domestic, and the expenditures of Dutch households on vacations. The paper first provides a brief review of Dutch vacation behaviour over the past 30 years. It then presents the results of statistical models for destination choice and the number of vacations, and for the expenditure conditional on the destination and the number of vacations. A higher income and a higher level of education increase the probability of a vacation abroad. In addition, expenditures increase with income, but when two vacations are undertaken the vacation abroad benefits most from this increase. Participation in both a domestic vacation and a vacation abroad increases steeply up to an annual income of €60,000.
Abstract: The authors study the determinants of the expenditure behaviour of visitors to two types of museums. Ad hoc surveys were conducted between June and September 2011 of visitors to the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology and the Museum of Modern and Contemporaneous Art of Trento and Rovereto (MART). These are the two principal museums in the Italian provinces of Bolzano and Trento. The double-hurdle model is used via the Heien and Wessels two-step estimator. This procedure splits the process of spending decision into the stages of ‘selection’ and ‘outcome’, and also results in consistent estimates. The findings highlight two distinct profiles. The spending of visitors to the modern art museum is positively related to its cultural interest, whereas the expenditure profile of the archaeological museum visitors is more ‘generalist’.
Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of an increase in inbound tourism demand on unemployment in a small open economy, comprising an industrial sector and a tourism sector. The demand of foreign tourists may either rise exogenously (for example, owing to an increase in foreigners’ income) or because of advertising efforts of the domestic country. The author develops a short-run, two-sector model with separated non-Walrasian labour markets, characterized by search of the Pissarides type. Unemployment results from time consuming and costly matching of vacancies with searching agents. A 25% long-run increase in foreigners’ tourism demand causes unemployment dynamics in both sectors. The economy-wide unemployment rate shows a non- monotone adjustment and is reduced by roughly 0.3 percentage points. Similar results are obtained if the demand increase is due to successful advertising. The model therefore supports the popular view that tourism can reduce unemployment.
Abstract: This paper addresses the question of the value attached by residents to the wealth of cultural heritage in their city. Particular attention is given to the impact of various types of information (ranging from traditional to advanced ICT sources) on residents’ valuation of cultural heritage. Based on an extensive survey among inhabitants of Amsterdam, a two-stage analytical approach is adopted: (i) an econometric (ordered logit) modelling approach to identify the most prominent vectors of residents’ appreciation of cultural heritage; and (ii) a microsimulation modelling approach to generate a comprehensive picture of the value set of inhabitants regarding the cultural heritage in their city. The information obtained may serve as the basis for urban strategies with regard to tourism policy, cultural heritage planning and information services management.
Abstract: The authors use a set of econometric models to analyse the destination choices of international travellers who responded to the 2009 Survey of International Air Travelers of the US Department of Commerce. The models take into account the demographic characteristics of the individual travellers. The authors estimate that the elasticity of the number of travellers to a country with respect to airfares ranges from –0.953 to –0.810, and the elasticity with respect to the level of consumer prices in the destination country ranges from –0.273 to –0.204.
Abstract: The debate on the sustainability of mass tourism development strategies for given destinations has focused to a large degree on the advisability of shifting the pattern of specialization towards higher quality. However, little and limited theoretical analysis exists to support this idea. This paper proposes an evolutionary agent-based model for analysing this topic. Different initial configurations of the distribution of hotel qualities and varied saturation levels in the destination lead to different equilibrium configurations. It is found that high-quality and low-quality segments coexist in most of the simulations. Also, the saturation level of a given destination is crucial in determining the weight of the different quality segments up to a limit or maximum level beyond which a strategy of enhancing quality is no longer effective.
Abstract: This study develops and tests a tourism employment model with 17-year time series data in China. The model reveals that tourism employment does not always grow in accordance with the tourism economy. The results indicate that tourism employment in China is driven mainly by the development of tourism-related industries. The results also show that technological progress has a slight negative effect on tourism employment in China.
Abstract: After an explanation of the term ‘academic tourism’, the authors analyse the positive economic impact of academic tourism in Galicia, distinguishing between direct and indirect impacts. For the empirical application, an expenditure survey was carried out and the input–output technique was used. The results demonstrate that, owing to its characteristics, academic tourism has a greater economic impact than conventional tourism. In light of these results, the policy implications are discussed.
Abstract: This paper examines the general travel patterns of Ghanaians and, based on these, explores the implications for domestic tourism. Employing discrete choice models, data from the Ghana Statistical Service (specifically, the fifth round of the Ghana Living Standard Survey) are used for the analysis. In addition to providing a quantitative analysis of the determinants of travel propensity, which had not previously been examined for Ghana, the authors test two hypotheses. First, they assert a three- way (positive–negative–positive) relationship between age and travel propensity. Second, they argue that the mother’s education is more likely to influence the decision to travel than the father’s education. The travel patterns of Ghanaians were found to bear the inherent hallmarks of domestic tourism. The authors also observe that, although the degree of travel is low, the frequency of repeat visits is high. Social imperatives dominated the motives for travel, while key socio-demographic variables (especially the respondent’s age) were found to influence travel propensities significantly.
Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of visitors’ expenditure behaviour at cultural events. The authors analyse visitors’ expenditure at the micro-level, dividing it into expenditure on accommodation and expenditure on food and beverages. The explicative variables taken into account are socio-demographic, economic, psychological and trip–related attributes. An ad hoc survey was conducted on the three most famous Christmas markets in the north of Italy in December 2008 and 2009. To achieve their aims, the authors use the robust double-hurdle model. The results indicate that travel purpose, region of origin, perception of the event, length of stay and age are significant factors influencing both the propensity to spend and the amount of money actually spent during visits. The findings will provide destination managers and tourism businesses with practical knowledge useful for destination marketing, event development and customer service.
Abstract: For the last several decades, marketing research and finance research have developed with little interconnection. Traditionally, marketing research has emphasized the product market and finance research has focused on firm profitability and shareholder value. However, contemporary management strategies increasingly seek to enhance profitability and shareholder value via marketing strategies, which suggests the need for further exploration of the connections between marketing efforts and financial performance. Despite this increased attention, little research in the academic fields of tourism and hospitality has focused on bridging marketing and finance. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to introduce the concept of the marketing–finance interface and to explain possible applications of the concept in tourism and hospitality management.
Abstract: While previous studies have documented that state ownership (SO) plays a significant role in China’s hotel industry, no research has formally tested its influence on the hotel industry in China. This study examines the impact of SO on hotel firms’ characteristics and financial performance based on panel data methodology. The characteristics of hotel firms are size, leverage, liquidity, operating efficiency and growth opportunity. Three financial performance measures are: return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and stock return. The test results reveal that hotels with high SO in China are small and have high debt leverage and low liquidity. However, SO does not have a strong influence on ROA, ROE and stock return. Finally, policy implications are offered to guide the Chinese government and hotel business owners and managers.
Abstract: As international tourism is an industry that is easily impacted by external shocks, there is always structural mutation of the time series related with it, which causes the existence of outliers. Those outliers will have an impact on analyses based on such data. Using quarterly data from 1994 to 2006, this paper detects outliers in the time series of international tourists to China and finds that the number of international tourists during the second and the third quarters of 2003 are outliers of the time series. To eliminate the impact of outliers, the paper uses the SARIMA model to forecast the values of outliers. By replacing the original value with the forecasted values, the authors conduct a co-integration analysis with the new time series and the corresponding quarterly gross domestic product (GDP) data. The results show that research conducted without considering outliers overestimates the effect of international tourism on economic growth.