Vol 21 No 6 December 2015
1344 The Thea Sinclair Award for Journal Article Excellence, 2014
1345 Index to Volume 21, 2015
Abstract: Researchers have studied both the positive and negative impacts of tourism. Bama, one of the world’s top five ‘longevity’ villages, has enjoyed a rapid increase in tourism visits and income in recent years. However, current developments are accompanied by various environmental and social issues that threaten the local community. Though most indigenous people in Bama earn more than before, they are seldom involved in the distribution of fair benefits and the decision-making processes affecting the village. Based on three surveys conducted in 2009, 2011 and 2013, this paper examines changes in the perception of tourism’s impact and the supportive attitude of the local residents. Suggestions are made for improving the development of tourism in Bama.
Abstract: This paper focuses on how travellers prioritize their choices in making a final decision on their holiday destination and travel conditions, especially on how they consider the ‘all- inclusive’ travel mode. The authors use 1,065 observations from a visitor exit survey (in two waves: 2006 and 2012) to examine the determinants of prioritizing destination choice or travel mode in the holiday decision-making process. Estimating a multinomial model, they find that the decision structure of those individuals who prioritize destination is different from that of those who prioritize the travel mode. The paper also contributes to research on the intention to return to a destination related to the intention to repeat the same holiday formula. The authors distinguish between those tourists who prioritize destination choice and those who prioritize the travel mode. Through an estimated sequential model, they present the results of the revisiting patterns for these two groups.
Abstract: In a Nash equilibrium, every participant’s strategy is the optimal reaction to the strategies of others. Based on economic theory, this paper analyses core stakeholders’ behaviour in the tourism community at Qingcheng Mountain, Chengdu, China. Taking taxation, land prices and employment as the payoffs, and the local government, the community and the investors as the players, the incomplete information static game model is applied to outline the stakeholders’ behaviour. The paper also examines who benefits the most and who occupies a dominant position. The results indicate that the game strategy of residents in Qingcheng Mountain is influenced by the investors. The influence of the investors is also crucial in the decision making mechanism of the tourism community to maintain sustainable tourism development.
Abstract: The role of human capital variables in the economic performance of agents has been widely analysed in the economics literature. In the field of tourism, various studies have addressed these relationships. However, studies focusing on the direct impact of human capital on firm performance in the industry are scarce. This paper analyses the determinants of the economic performance of firms for a representative sample of hotels in Majorca, focusing on human capital aspects, and on-the-job training in particular. Several measures are used to capture different aspects of the hotels’ performance. The results show that, while several human capital variables help to explain performance to a certain extent, training stands out, both by itself and in combination with the innovation and category variable. Interestingly, training and innovative investments behave as complementary or substituting factors depending on the nature of innovations. On the other hand, returns from training decrease with the rise of hotel category.
Abstract: As a mature tourism destination, the Balearic Islands suffer the normal effects of the stagnation stage of the tourism area life cycle (TALC) model. During stagnation, reorientation policies are used in an attempt to mitigate some of those effects in order to reduce the prevalence of seasonality. Various planning instruments have been designed and implemented by successive local governments, a key priority being the attempt to find a strategic answer to reducing this phenomenon. Based on the analysis of successive marketing plans of the Autonomous Region of the Balearic Islands, and using the Gini index to measure seasonality, this study explores the link between the two and demonstrates that regional political policies adopted over the last 20 years have not reduced seasonal variation in tourism. The demand remains at the same levels of seasonality as in the 1990s, suggesting the ineffectiveness of the policies implemented.
Abstract: This paper analyses Chinese tourist arrivals in Thailand during the last 25 years using various quantitative techniques. The number of Chinese tourists in Thailand has been increasing for two decades but since 2009 the trend has been particularly dramatic, with a 56.84% annual growth rate. The study found an increase of seasonality, but arrivals showed the same yearly pattern. Income elasticity indicates that Thailand will continue to benefit from China’s economic growth. In addition, Chinese tourists respond less to a change in Thailand’s prices than to changes in competitors’ prices. In 2017, Chinese arrivals are forecast to reach 7.9 million with an annual growth rate of 19.98% since 2013. Therefore, Thailand should focus on capacity preparation for this market growth while monitoring the policies of its major competitors in the China outbound market.
Abstract: The authors analyse the concept of competitiveness and then apply this concept to tourist destinations. The objective is to measure tourism destination competitiveness in the regions of the Spanish Mediterranean coast to provide tourism policymakers with tools to improve destination competitiveness. Through a review of the literature, the authors identify the indicators that may explain competitiveness. They then select the variables and determine their quantitative effect on destination competitiveness in Spanish Mediterranean regions. The findings enable a better understanding of tourism destination competitiveness. Finally, the authors comment on the relationship between competitiveness and prosperity.
Abstract: Mergers among US domiciled airlines have increased in recent years. These mergers are attempts by airlines to assuage operational and financial challenges and to obtain actual or ostensible benefits, including efficiency and market power gains, and improve competitive position. This study investigates the market reaction to merger announcements by bidder firms in the US airline industry, an oligopolistic industry, during the period 1985–2013. Results of the analysis show significant positive reaction to the announcements. The findings suggest that the market perceives these merger transactions as value-relevant events for bidders. In addition, the findings are consistent with the semi- strong form of the efficient market hypothesis.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to analyse and position tourism firms based on the value creation concept. An empirical study was carried out using customer evaluations of lodging companies available on the website of Booking.com. Based on this information, three new variables were created to analyse the competitive positioning of firms in a specific tourism destination: ‘quality’, ‘value’ and ‘added value’; and a measurement method was proposed. The result is a manageable methodology that can be used by practitioners and researchers to analyse the lodging market and companies’ positioning. The findings show that value is a subjective concept that depends on customers’ expectations. Finally, the methodology was implemented in a specific case to show its capacity to analyse market positioning.
Abstract: This paper discusses the issues facing Philippine Airlines in its ever evolving and changing landscape in the domestic, regional and international markets. The Philippine aviation industry had its safety status downgraded to Category 2 for six years by the International Civil Aviation Organization and the US Federal Aviation Administration. This downgrading of the status severely limited Philippine Airlines from expanding internationally, but its reinstatement provides huge opportunities for the incumbent. However, in the domestic and regional markets it faces a threat from rapidly encroaching low-cost carriers. The Philippines has the highest domestic low-cost carrier penetration rate in the world, while the incumbent has rebranded its low-cost subsidiary, AirPhil, to a full-service carrier, PAL Express, which has impacted its ability to compete in short-haul markets. Philippine Airlines’ new routes to the Middle East and Europe have the potential to be profitable, but their success is hampered by the lack of domestic connectivity and no feeder traffic from partner airlines.
Abstract: This paper uses support vector regressions (SVRs) and Google search data to test whether observing Internet habits can provide insights into trends in tourist arrivals in Barbados. The empirical evidence suggests that Google Trends data may be used to pick up changing patterns and trends in tourist arrivals from the UK and Canada. In the case of the USA, the authors find no evidence to suggest that Google data add any significant information to what can be ‘learned’ from an autoregressive SVR.
Abstract: This paper reviews the results of an analysis of the tourism industry in Kazakhstan, which has great potential for development. Despite the favourable conditions for tourism business development and the tourist and recreational resources in Kazakhstan, there are several problems. The authors discuss the factors constraining the functioning and development of tourist activity. They present an evaluation of the efficiency of, and prospects for, tourism operations in the country and identify forward-looking economic indicators for the tourism industry.
Abstract: Researchers have criticized the traditional contingent valuation method (CVM) due to its potential response bias. To address this bias, several studies have employed improved CVM survey designs. When respondents disguise the truth, non-sampling errors are created that cannot be corrected by these elaborate survey modifications. To reduce this type of non-sampling error, Park and MacLachlan (2008) suggested the exaggeration bias-corrected (EBC) CVM, which assumes a functional mechanism between real and spurious willingness to pay (WTP). The authors verify the effectiveness of the EBC-CVM in non-sampling error reduction, which in turn derives more error- corrected economic value. Few studies have employed the EBC-CVM in a tourism context. The main goals of this study are to introduce EBC-CVM and to test its validity in a tourism study. The results indicate that EBC-CVM contributes to the reduction of non-sampling errors. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of internal and external factors on the increase in international tourism demand for the Cook Islands for the period 2000–2012. The authors find that the key internal factor, the growth in destination marketing by the Cook Islands Tourism Corporation representatives in major markets, has had a positive and significant effect on the increase in the Cook Islands’ visitor inflow. The boost in marketing expenditure has also created a remarkable change in the decomposition of the visitor flows from major countries.