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The business and finance of tourism and recreation

ISSN 1354-8166 (print); 2044-0375 (online)


Editor: Stephen Wanhill,
Professor of Tourism Economics,
University of Limerick,
and Emeritus Professor of Tourism
Research, Bournemouth University

This journal is covered by Thomson Reuters in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences. Impact Factor: 0.800

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Editorial coverage

Tourism Economics, published quarterly, covers the business aspects of tourism in the wider context. It takes account of constraints on development, such as social and community interests and the sustainable use of tourism and recreation resources, and inputs into the production process. The definition of tourism used includes tourist trips taken for all purposes, embracing both stay and day visitors.

Articles address the components of the tourism product (accommodation; restaurants; merchandizing; attractions; transport; entertainment; tourist activities); and the economic organization of tourism at micro and macro levels (market structure; role of public/private sectors; community interests; strategic planning; marketing; finance; economic development).

Core subject areas:

  • forecasting
  • public policy (strategies, fiscal and other intervention policies)
  • economic development
  • market structures and competition
  • sources of capital provision
  • labour economics (quality and productivity issues)
  • business aspects of marketing
  • private and public sector interaction
  • economic appraisal at sector and project level
  • mathematical modelling
  • developments in the components of the product
  • structure of the tourism industry (including such issues as ownership, corporate size, international operations, etc)
  • regional economic effects of tourism developments
  • analysis of international data on tourism, such as WTO statistics

Submissions - Notes for authors

Please send papers, either by e-mail or post, to Professor Stephen Wanhill, c/o IP Publishing Ltd, 258 Belsize Road, London NW6 4BT, UK. Please note that e-mail submissions should be sent to JEdmondson(at)ippublishing.com (this address is obtainable by clicking on Professor Wanhill's name in the preceding sentence). Receipt of your paper will be acknowledged by e-mail and it will then be forwarded to Professor Wanhill.

Length and presentation of contributions

 Papers will normally be about 5,000 words long. However, this is by no means inflexible and substantially shorter or longer papers will be considered where appropriate. Research notes and shorter report-style pieces will also be considered (1,500-2,000 words).

Submissions should be double-spaced. They can be sent to the editor either by e-mail or post c/o the publisher (details above). The publisher will send an acknowledgement on receipt of submissions. Electronic versions must be in Word (postal submissions should include one hard copy and a disk or CD).

The title page should contain full names and addresses of the authors and their affiliations. As this page will not be forwarded to referees, the title of the article (without authors) should be repeated on the first page of the text.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100-150 words. Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper. The text should be organized under appropriate cross-headings (not numbered paragraphs) and where possible these should be not more than 800 words apart.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author's surname (or authors' surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 1998). For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

Articles: Figini, P., and Vici, L. (2010), ‘Tourism and growth in a cross section of countries’, Tourism Economics, Vol 16, No 4, December 2010.

Books: Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., and Dwyer, W. (2010), Tourism Economics and Policy, Channel View, Bristol.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables and illustrations should be presented separately at the end of the text. Authors should bear in mind that, in the print version of the journal, illustrations will be reproduced in black and white.

Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.

Refereeing

All papers, other than research notes and reports, will be subject to a 'double blind' review - i.e. the anonymity of both authors and referees will be maintained throughout the refereeing process. There will be a minimum of two referees for each paper. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from industry) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.

Copyright

Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Stephen Wanhill, Professor of Tourism Economics, University of Limerick, and Emeritus Professor of Tourism Research, Bournemouth University, c/o IP Publishing Ltd, 258 Belsize Road, London NW6 4BT, UK.

Special Advisers
  • Professor John Fletcher, International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research,
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Professor William C. Gartner, Tourism Center,
    University of Minnesota, USA
  • Professor J. Mazanec, MODUL University
    Vienna, Austria
  • Professor Lindsay W. Turner, School of Applied Economics
    Victoria University, Australia

Editorial Advisory Board

  • Professor Eugeni Aguiló
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
  • Dr Albert Assaf
    University of Massachusetts-Amherst, USA
  • Professor Esteban Bardolet
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Spain
  • Professor Carlos Pestana Barros
    Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Professor Eberhard Bischoff
    University of Wales Swansea, UK
  • Professor Juan Gabriel Brida
    Free University of Bolzano, Italy
  • Professor Nevenka Čavlek
    University of Zagreb, Croatia
  • Professor Jim Deegan
    University of Limerick, Ireland
  • Dr Sarath Divisekera
    Victoria University of Technology, Australia
  • Professor Larry Dwyer
    University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Professor Peter Forsyth
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor D.C. Frechtling
    The George Washington University, USA
  • Dr Twan Huybers
    University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Dr Stanislav Ivanov
    International University College, Bulgaria
  • Professor Carson L. Jenkins
    University of Strathclyde, UK
  • Professor Woo Gon (Woody) Kim
    Florida State University, USA
  • Professor Brian King
    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
  • Professor Adele Ladkin
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Dr Peter Morrell
    Cranfield University, UK
  • Professor Yasuo Ohe
    Chiba University, Japan
  • Professor Andrea Saayman
    North-West University, South Africa
  • Dr Mondher Sahli
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
  • Dr Neelu Seetaram
    Bournemouth University, UK
  • Professor Egon Smeral
    Austrian Institute of Economic Research and Modul University, Austria
  • Professor Haiyan Song
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, PR China
  • Professor Natalie Stoeckl
    James Cook University, Australia
  • Dr Brian Terry
    Terry & Partners, UK
  • Professor John Westlake
    Prince of Songkla University, Thailand

Vol 20 No 2 April 2014

207 The role of tourism in poverty reduction: an empirical assessment

Robertico Croes

227 International tourists’ decision timing: cross-national differences

Christer Thrane, Eivind Farstad and Petter Dybedal

241 Cultural participation and tourism flows: an empirical investigation of Italian provinces

Karol Jan Borowiecki and Concetta Castiglione

263 Eliciting users’ preferences for cultural heritage and tourism-related e-services: a tale of three European cities

Aline Chiabai, Stephen Platt and Wadim Strielkowski

279 On the regional economic effects of the Pope’s journeys: evidence from the visit to Santiago de Compostela in 2010

Angel Barajas, Santiago Lago-Peñas and Patricio Sanchez

301 The role of psychographic factors in nature-based tourist expenditure

Knut Veisten, Kreg Lindberg, Berit Grue and Jan Vidar Haukeland

323 The Christmas–Easter shift: simulating Alpine ski resorts’ future development under climate change conditions using the parameter ‘optimal ski day’

Anja Berghammer and Jürgen Schmude

337 Educational mismatch and returns on human capital in the Spanish hospitality and travel agency sectors

Alejandro García-Pozo, José Luis Sánchez-Ollero and Andrés Marchante-Mera

355 The role of knowledge-intensive business services in Spanish local tourist production systems

José Antonio Álvarez-González And Mª Olga González-Morales

373 Cyclical variation in the effect of federal funds target rate surprises on hospitality index returns

Ming-Hsiang Chen

389 A general equilibrium analysis of the economic impact of a devaluation on tourism: the case of Fiji

Stephen Pratt

407 Exploring small area demand for grocery retailers in tourist areas

Andy Newing, Graham Clarke and Martin Clarke

429 Research note: Measuring tourism sustainability: an empirical comparison of different weighting procedures used in modelling composite indicators

Ivan Kožić and Josip Mikulić

439 Research note: Revenue and labour demand in the hotel industry: an investigation of endogeneity

Chiang-Ming Chen, Yu-Chen Lin and Yu-Hsun Liao

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Title: The role of tourism in poverty reduction: an empirical assessment

Author(s): Robertico Croes

Abstract: This paper assesses how tourism affects absolute poverty beyond its effects on growth in two developing countries. In particular, the author explores whether tourism spending leads to a decline in the proportion of people below the poverty line. An error correction model is applied to estimate the relationship between poverty and tourism spending. The results reveal that tourism does matter for the poor, but that it does not appear to have systematic effects, and that tourism development matters most for the poor at the lower levels of economic development. The findings from the two developing country case studies show differing impacts of tourism development, and thus the policy implications differ for each case.

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Title: International tourists’ decision timing: cross-national differences

Author(s): Christer Thrane, Eivind Farstad and Petter Dybedal

Abstract: This study concerns decision timing in international tourism; that is, the amount of time that elapses between a decision being made to visit a foreign country and the trip actually taking place. In particular, the focus is on differences in decision times among tourists of different nationalities. The empirical setting is the inbound summer tourism market in Norway, and the data are based on a large- scale visitor survey conducted in 2011. The average international tourist visiting Norway during the 2011 summer season made the decision to do so about six months in advance; however, there were noticeable national differences in this regard. Furthermore, the results show that certain other independent variables contribute to the statistical explanation of variations in decision times. The implications for further research and marketing are discussed.

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Title: Cultural participation and tourism flows: an empirical investigation of Italian provinces

Author(s): Karol Jan Borowiecki and Concetta Castiglione

Abstract: The importance of cultural events for attracting tourism has often been posited in research, but rarely tested in relation to non-cultural activities. This paper investigates the association between participation in entertainment activities and tourism flows in Italian provinces, and finds that admission to theatre-type activities increases as the number of domestic tourists rises, whereas admission to museums or concerts rises with an increase in foreign tourists. Admissions to exhibitions and shows demonstrate a positive association with both domestic and international tourists, while non-cultural activities remain statistically insignificant. The results provide empirical support for the existence of a strong relationship between tourism flows and cultural participation. The findings also imply that the demand for entertainment varies depending on the origin of the tourist.

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Title: Eliciting users’ preferences for cultural heritage and tourism-related e-services: a tale of three European cities

Author(s): Aline Chiabai, Stephen Platt and Wadim Strielkowski

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to show how surveys are used to elicit users’ preferences and willingness to pay for novel packages of e-services used in commercial tourism. The authors analyse data gathered from 5,100 questionnaire survey responses by residents, visitors and service providers in three European cities – Amsterdam, Genoa and Leipzig. The results show that people are willing to pay for some of the proposed e-services, while other services clearly represent a cost. The findings are important for the improvement of decisions in the tourism industry, which often uses various combinations of e-services to promote cultural heritage, enhancing visitors’ experiences. In addition, the results may help to identify eventual prices that could be charged for the use of e-services in cultural heritage.

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Title: On the regional economic effects of the Pope’s journeys: evidence from the visit to Santiago de Compostela in 2010

Author(s): Angel Barajas, Santiago Lago-Peñas and Patricio Sanchez

Abstract: This study estimates the economic impact of the Pope’s visit on 6 November 2010 on the region of Galicia. Several sources of information are used, including the authors’ own surveys, interviews, official statistical sources, press and audiometric studies developed by specialized companies. The cost–benefit analysis methodological approach is applied. Overall, the authors conclude that the net effects are clearly positive in terms of boosting regional economic activity and tourism promotion. Conversely, tax returns for the regional government are very low due to the fiscal federal arrangements in Spain.

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Title: The role of psychographic factors in nature-based tourist expenditure

Author(s): Knut Veisten, Kreg Lindberg, Berit Grue and Jan Vidar Haukeland

Abstract: Numerous studies have examined the relationship between tourist expenditure and observable characteristics of the individual and the trip. We add latent variables based on psychographic factors into a model of expenditure by nature-based tourists. This study models the log of per person trip expenditure by domestic and international visitors in a Norwegian alpine national park region as a function of psychographic factors as well as traditional measures of trip and demographic characteristics. In the regression models, factor scores were utilized from nature orientation, recreation experience preference (REP), a new ecological paradigm (NEP) and wilderness preference (WPS) scales. Higher scores on a NEP environmentalism factor were associated with higher expenditure, while higher scores on a REP risk seeking factor were associated with lower expenditure. Higher scores on a risk seeking, or challenge factor, from the nature orientation scale was associated with lower expenditure, while higher scores on an inspiration seeking factor were associated with higher expenditure. Structural equation models were then estimated for comparison. The implications for tourism management and marketing are discussed.

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Title: The Christmas–Easter shift: simulating Alpine ski resorts’ future development under climate change conditions using the parameter ‘optimal ski day’

Author(s): Anja Berghammer and Jürgen Schmude

Abstract: Ski tourism is strongly influenced by climate change. The economic success of ski tourism regions depends on both the quantity and quality of the ski resorts’ opening days. However, to date there has been little research on the quality of ski season opening days. The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a parameter that enables us to assess the future development of ski seasons in a differentiated way. The results show a decrease of ski area opening days from 2011 to 2060 in the investigation area in general and a trend to an intra-seasonal postponing of optimal ski days, labelled the ‘Christmas–Easter shift’. The parameter developed contributes to our understanding of climate change effects on the tourism supply-side at a regional scale and offers decision support to ski lift operators or tourism associations in terms of adaptation measures.

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Title: Educational mismatch and returns on human capital in the Spanish hospitality and travel agency sectors

Author(s): Alejandro García-Pozo, José Luis Sánchez-Ollero and Andrés Marchante-Mera

Abstract: The authors analyse the returns on human capital and the importance of educational mismatch in determining wages in the Spanish hospitality and the travel agency sectors. In addition, they assess the impact of several job characteristics (business size, full-time contracts and permanent contracts) and personal characteristics (gender and worker nationality) on wages. Using an expanded Mincerian wage equation and data from the 2006 Spanish Wage Structure Survey, they estimate separate regressions for each educational group analysed: overeducated, undereducated and adequately educated workers. The results show that the return on human capital and the real hourly wage may be quantitatively influenced by educational mismatch. Moreover, evidence is presented regarding the impact of firm size on wage returns and the data also reveal wage differentials by the gender and nationality of workers in the Spanish hospitality industry.

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Title: The role of knowledge-intensive business services in Spanish local tourist production systems

Author(s): José Antonio Álvarez-González And Mª Olga González-Morales

Abstract: This paper analyses the evolution of the knowledge base in local tourist production systems (LTPS) in Spain and of knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) and the effects on labour productivity in tourist services. Innovation depends on an enterprise’s ability to generate new knowledge and absorb external knowledge, and KIBS are external providers of knowledge. The process ends when the acquired knowledge has an effect on innovation and the impact is reflected in increased productivity. This approach assesses learning through interaction and space. It applies multidimensional scaling to detect associations between variables and LTPS. The results indicate that most changes in productivity are caused by a combination of tacit and codified knowledge, but this differs depending on the LTPS. Labour productivity also increases in the LTPS, which further increases the supply of KIBS.

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Title: Cyclical variation in the effect of federal funds target rate surprises on hospitality index returns

Author(s): Ming-Hsiang Chen

Abstract: This paper examines the effect of US Federal Reserve monetary policy action announcements on hospitality index returns (HIRs) and provides evidence of cyclical variation in the impact of federal funds target rate surprises on US HIRs. To obtain a correct identification of monetary policy changes, the paper follows Kuttner in separating the surprise element from the expected element of the target rate changes. The surprise element is expected to have a strong influence on HIRs because the surprise component is not yet priced in the market. Test results show that funds target rate surprises can have a significant impact on airline, gambling, hotel and travel and leisure index returns, but actual funds target rate changes and the expected component have no strong impact on HIRs. Moreover, the significant influence of funds target rate surprises on HIRs depends on business conditions and is much greater in size and statistical significance in business contraction. In particular, the significant effects of federal funds target rate surprises on airline, hotel and restaurant index returns are found to exist only during periods of business cycle contraction.

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Title: A general equilibrium analysis of the economic impact of a devaluation on tourism: the case of Fiji

Author(s): Stephen Pratt

Abstract: Policymakers often see a currency devaluation as a means of increasing a country’s exports, providing a boost to economic activity. In an economy where tourism exports are significant, a devaluation will make tourism more competitive, providing a stimulus to the economy through tourism exports. Imports will be more expensive, which is often seen as an inflationary side-effect of the export stimulus. Results from a computable general equilibrium model of Fiji indicate that, while devaluation will increase tourism consumption, the overall effect on the economy will be contractionary, as household consumption, investment and domestic production will all decrease. Policymakers and central banks need to consider the full economy-wide impacts of a currency devaluation when determining the overall benefit to the economy.

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Title: Exploring small area demand for grocery retailers in tourist areas

Author(s): Andy Newing, Graham Clarke and Martin Clarke

Abstract: This paper uses data from a major loyalty card scheme to draw insights about the characteristics of grocery expenditure by tourists. The authors explore the volume, value and composition of store-based visitor expenditure using consumer data from the loyalty card scheme. They focus on grocery spending at selected stores in Cornwall, a popular tourist destination in South West England. The loyalty card data provide a valuable source rarely available for academic investigations. The authors are able to analyse visitor spend by socio-economic and geodemographic characteristics, drawing a range of comparisons with residential demand from within the store catchment areas. They demonstrate that visitor grocery expenditure is complex and varies by store, destination and type of customer. The paper presents evidence to suggest that the current approaches used to estimate sales uplift and local-level economic impact from visitor demand are unable to account for the complexities of this form of expenditure. Based on these insights, the authors recommend that sophisticated modelling is employed to estimate the impact of visitor expenditure.

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Title: Research note: Measuring tourism sustainability: an empirical comparison of different weighting procedures used in modelling composite indicators

Author(s): Ivan Kožić and Josip Mikulić

Abstract: This paper compares three different procedures for weighting sustainability indicators in the construction of composite indicators of tourism sustainability (TS). The case of Croatian coastal destinations is used. The particular weighting procedures are: (a) factor analysis (FA); (b) expert panel survey; and (c) the equal weights technique. As the results of this study reveal, the weights attached to different sustainability indicators can differ significantly depending on the weighting procedure used. Accordingly, inappropriate choice of weighting procedure could distort the relative importance of different sustainability indicators and thus could result in imperfect decisions by policymakers. The authors argue that the suitability of factor analysis as a weighting procedure in the construction of composite indicators of TS is rather questionable.

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Title: Research note: Revenue and labour demand in the hotel industry: an investigation of endogeneity

Author(s): Chiang-Ming Chen, Yu-Chen Lin and Yu-Hsun Liao

Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of hotel room revenue on labour demand based on data for international tourist hotels in Taiwan. Past empirical research on the relationship between hotel room revenue and labour demand has failed to take into account the fact that the causality between these two variables can be a two-way rather than just a one-way relationship. In other words, room revenue can affect labour demand and vice versa. The authors address this issue by using an instrumental variables (IV) regression approach in which room revenue and hotel labour demand can be determined simultaneously. The empirical results indicate that a failure to account for the two-way causality will underestimate the effect of room revenue on labour demand. The findings are of particular importance to hotel managers as the authors provide more accurate estimates for the relationship between hotel room revenue and labour demand.

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