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Outlook On Agriculture cover Outlook on Agriculture logo Outlook On Agriculture cover

The international journal devoted to agricultural science, policy and strategy.

ISSN 0030-7270 (print); 2043-6866 (online)

Editor: Dr Jerry Knox

This journal is covered by Thomson Reuters in the Science Citation Index, the Science Citation Index Expanded, Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology & Environmental Sciences, and BIOSIS Previews. Impact Factor: 0.368. 5-Year Impact Factor: 0.544. (2013 Journal Citation Reports® Science Edition, Thomson Reuters, 2014).

This journal is indexed in Scopus

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Editorial coverage

Outlook on Agriculture is published quarterly and welcomes original research papers, research notes, invited reviews and commentary for an international and interdisciplinary readership. Special attention is paid to agricultural policy, international trade in the agricultural sector, strategic developments in food production, the links between agricultural systems and food security, the role of agriculture in social and economic development, agriculture in developing countries and environmental issues, including natural resources for agriculture and climate impacts. Articles should be in the region of 4,000 words; relevant literature should be cited with a recommended limit of 30 references.

Submissions - Notes for authors

Outlook on Agriculture uses an online webtool called Editman for manuscript submission, review and feedback. Please follow the link below to submit your manuscript through Editman:


You will first need to register with Editman and then upload details regarding your manuscript. The process is quick and straightforward. Once complete, you will receive an acknowledgement and your paper will then be screened for journal relevance.

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should be in the region of 4,000 words. Research notes and shorter pieces will also be considered for publication. In addition, papers derived from work done under the EU Research Framework Programme will be readily considered. Submissions should be double-spaced. Electronic versions must be in Word.

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and where possible these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100-150 words.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper. References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author's surname (or authors' surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 1998). For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples: 

Articles: Wheeler, T., and Kay, M. (2010), ‘Food crop production, water and climate change in the developing world’, Outlook on Agriculture, Vol 39, No 4, pp 239–243.

Books: Lovelock, J. (2009), The Vanishing Face of Gaia: a Final Warning, Allen Lane, London.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction. Photographs should be glossy prints with good contrast. Authors should bear in mind that colour illustrations will be reproduced in black and white in the print version of the journal.

Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.


Other than research notes, reports, and personal opinion pieces, articles will be refereed. Papers by authors who are not academics (eg submissions from industry) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.


Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

  • Editor: Dr Jerry Knox, Cranfield Institute for Water Science, Dept of Environmental Science and Technology, Cranfield University, Bedford MK43 0AL, UK. E-mail: j.knox(a)cranfield.ac.uk
  • Consulting Editor: Dr David Lister, Somerset, UK

Editorial Advisory Board

  • Professor P.K. Aggarwal
    Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India
  • Dr Simon Anderson
    International Institute for Environment and Development, UK
  • Professor Deng Xi-Ping
    Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
  • Dr C. Devendra
    Consulting Tropical Animal Production Specialist, Malaysia
  • Dr R. C. Hardwick
    Brussels, Belgium
  • Dr Alfred Hartemink
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
  • Hsin Huang
    International Meat Secretariat, France
  • Dr Jill M. Lenné,
    Consulting Tropical Agriculture Specialist, Fyvie, UK
  • Dr Antoinette Mannion
    Department of Geography, University of Reading, UK
  • Professor Graham Matthews
    Imperial College London, UK
  • Dr Sushil Pandey
    International Rice Research Institute, The Philippines
  • Dr Thomas Fitz Randolph
    International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya
  • Dr Fabrice Renaud
    United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Germany
  • Dr J. Sumberg
    Institute of Development Studies, UK
  • Professor Guido van Huylenbroeck
    Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Belgium
  • Professor J. Van Staden
    Research Centre for Plant Growth & Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa


229 Guest Editorial: Agriculture and water – emerging perspectives on farmer cooperation and adaptive co-management Luke Whaley

235 Are non-tariff measures a substitute for tariffs in agricultural trade? Recent evidence from southern Mediterranean countries

Lorena Tudela-Marco, Jose- Maria Garcia-Alvarez-Coque and Victor Martinez-Gomez

241 Modelling carbon tariffs to reduce global emissions in the agricultural sector

Chuanmin Shuai, Qing Guo, Liping Ding and Xin Cheng

247 Achieving profitable, productive climate-neutral Swedish agriculture

Karl- Ivar Kumm

253 Crop insurance subsidies and environmental externalities: evidence from southern Italy

Fabian Capitanio, Felice Adinolfi and Fabio Gaetano Santeramo

259 Efficiency and productivity change analysis of cotton production in Uzbekistan

A. Theodoridis, S. Hasanov and A. Abruev

265 Adoption of on-farm and off-farm diversification to manage agricultural risks: are these decisions correlated?

Raza Ullah and Ganesh P. Shivakoti

273 Effects of financial decisions on farm profitability in the Republic of Macedonia: evidence from a transition economy

Ana Simonovska, Dragan Gjosevski and Monica Campos

281 Energetic analysis of draught animal hay harvest: an alternative look at cellulosic biomass

Ben Dube and Kenneth Mulder

288 Index to Volume 43, 2014

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Title: Are non-tariff measures a substitute for tariffs in agricultural trade? Recent evidence from southern Mediterranean countries

Author(s): Lorena Tudela-Marco, Jose-Maria Garcia-Alvarez-Coque and Victor Martinez-Gomez

Abstract: The significance of and interest in non-tariff measures (NTMs) have increased as a consequence of the reduction in agricultural tariffs. This paper analyses the relationship between NTMs and tariffs in southern Mediterranean countries (SMCs) through two complementary analyses. First, the authors construct a taxonomy of protection for products, distinguishing between high protection, transparent protection, low protection and disguised protection. The low protection category is most widely represented, and the disguised protection category is also important. Second, the policy substitution hypothesis between tariff and non-tariff protection is tested. This hypothesis appears in the literature as the possibility that countries implement NTMs for protection purposes, as a result of the progressive reduction in the tariffs levied. Policy substitution is found in some SMCs, which is consistent with an upward trend of non-tariff protection as tariff liberalization progresses in the region.

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Title: Modelling carbon tariffs to reduce global emissions in the agricultural sector

Author(s): Chuanmin Shuai, Qing Guo, Liping Ding and Xin Cheng

Abstract: This paper reports on the application of the GTAP 8.0 model to simulate the potential effects of carbon tariffs to reduce global emissions in the agricultural sector. The results indicate that: (i) carbon tariffs could facilitate a reduction in global carbon leakage for all countries (regions) except those in the EU; (ii) the structural effects of emissions reduction reflect the differences in economic structure, energy efficiency and energy-saving and emissions reduction potential among different countries (regions); and (iii) carbon tariffs have complex effects on emissions reduction in the global agri-sector. Whilst agriculture in developed countries could achieve emissions reduction, the rest of the world, and developing countries in particular, will have slight increases in carbon emissions in agriculture.

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Title: Achieving profitable, productive climate-neutral Swedish agriculture

Author(s): Karl-Ivar Kumm

Abstract: A futuristic study by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency in the 1990s on how to make Swedish agriculture environmentally and economically sustainable by 2021 has been updated. The updating was based on assumptions of far-reaching improvements in biological productivity and the replacement of all existing EU support with environmental payments based on landscape values and the climate utility of carbon sequestration. The results suggest that economically sustainable food production satisfying domestic demand can be achieved through large-scale labour- and capital-saving rationalization and compensation for additional costs arising from special Swedish animal welfare regulations. Such rationalization is also necessary for the economically sustainable preservation of landscape values, including grazed semi-natural pastures and remaining arable land in forest-dominated districts. Carbon sequestration by broad-leaved trees planted on pastures and on arable land not needed for food production could compensate for the greenhouse gas emissions from food production.

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Title: Crop insurance subsidies and environmental externalities: evidence from southern Italy

Author(s): Fabian Capitanio, Felice Adinolfi and Fabio Gaetano Santeramo

Abstract: Rapid environmental changes can affect agriculture by introducing additional sources of uncertainty. Conversely, policy interventions to help farmers cope with risks can induce strong impacts on the environment. In this paper, the authors evaluate the effects of public risk management programmes, particularly subsidies on crop insurance, on fertilizer use and land allocation. They implement a mathematical programming model based on data collected from 1,092 farms in the Puglia region of southern Italy. The results show that, under the current crop insurance programmes, input use is expected to increase, while the effect on production is likely to be crop-specific. The policy and environmental implications of subsidies on crop insurance are discussed.

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Title: Efficiency and productivity change analysis of cotton production in Uzbekistan

Author(s): A. Theodoridis, S. Hasanov and A. Abruev

Abstract: Cotton production in Uzbekistan is known as ‘white gold’ and constitutes a strategic centrepiece of the country’s rural economy. However, the gradual ongoing process of market-oriented reform has had a severe impact on the cotton sector. The objective of this paper is to estimate the efficiency and total factor productivity growth of cotton farms in Uzbekistan. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied to measure technical efficiency and the Malmquist Index was used to estimate and analyse productivity. The analysis was based on a sample of 26 cotton farms observed between 2007 and 2009. The results help to provide a set of policy recommendations regarding the sector’s growth potential through the efficient utilization of resources, and indicate that there has been a moderate decline in productivity attributed to technical degeneration over the period studied.

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Title: Adoption of on-farm and off-farm diversification to manage agricultural risks: are these decisions correlated?

Author(s): Raza Ullah and Ganesh P. Shivakoti Abstract: Risk is an inherent part of agricultural production, so farmers often use management strategies to reduce the adverse impacts associated with their activities. Although the use of multiple risk management strategies is common practice in farming, literature on the simultaneous adoption of multiple risk management tools is limited. This study was designed to investigate the impact of various factors on farmers’ decisions to adopt on-farm and off-farm diversification and the potential for simultaneous adoption using bivariate and multinomial probit models. The results suggest that the decisions to adopt both on-farm and off-farm diversification are correlated, and adopting one risk management strategy may make it more likely that the other will be adopted simultaneously. Moreover, farm and farm household characteristics, farmers’ risk perceptions and their risk attitudes are important factors that shape their risk management adoption decisions.

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Title: Effects of financial decisions on farm profitability in the Republic of Macedonia: evidence from a transition economy

Author(s): Ana Simonovska, Dragan Gjosevski and Monica Campos

Abstract: In transition countries, farm businesses can suffer financial distress due to the restructuring of the agricultural sector and irregularities in capital and credit markets. By applying econometric techniques, the authors examine the influence of earnings, capital and financial business structures on the profitability of farm companies, and assess their capital structure strategy to increase profitability. The results show that farm companies rely more on debt than equity to operate. Financial risk is considered in long-term decisions, while in the short term pricing flexibility is a limitation. Farm companies without liquidity constraints follow the ‘pecking-order’ pattern, preferring assets rather than debt to profit, while liquidity- constrained companies are more consistent with ‘trade-off’ theory. The authors define a typical farm that exhibits increasing opportunities for profit under transition circumstances.

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Title: Energetic analysis of draught animal hay harvest: an alternative look at cellulosic biomass

Author(s): Ben Dube and Kenneth Mulder

Abstract: For most of human history, biomass has been the primary energy input for society. Concerns regarding climate change, resource depletion and energy security have prompted renewed interest in the use of biomass as an energy source. Draught animals, in addition to being a traditional means of utilizing biomass, can be used to harvest biomass. Data from oxen-powered haying at Green Mountain College in Vermont show an energy return on energy invested (EROI) of 5.93 for pelletized grass, with 80% of the energy input being renewable. Comparisons with other draught animal hay harvesting systems suggest that this performance is mediocre. Modest goals for system improvements could raise the EROI to over 10. Due to their competitive energy efficiency and low capital requirements, draught animals deserve more serious examination as a renewable energy source.

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