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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Professor Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Professor Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 5,000-8,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: McMullan, W.E., and Vesper, K.H. (2000), 'Becoming an entrepreneur: a participant's perspective', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 1, No 1, pp 33-43.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.


Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.


Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Professor Gerard McElwee, Huddersfield Business School, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk.

Regional Editors: Asia - Professor Manoj Joshi, Amity University, India; Canada and USA - Professor E. McMullan, University of Calgary, Canada; Europe - Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, University of Strathclyde, UK

Case Study Editor: Dr Robert Smith, Reader in Entrepreneurship, Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, UK. E-mail: r.smith-a(a)rgu.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: s.dobson(a)shu.ac.uk.

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    Global Independent Research, UK
  • Dr Susan Mayson
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Professor Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Professor Lorraine Warren
    Massey University, New Zealand
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK

AUGUST 2015 ISSUE (VOL 16, NO 3)

159 Entrepreneurial opportunities for all? Entrepreneurial capability and the Capabilities Approach

Nick Wilson and Lee Martin

171 Do owners and managers really differ? An examination of satisfaction with overall firm performance in small and medium-sized enterprises

Melanie P. Lorenz, John E. Gamble, David L. Turnipseed and K. Mark Weaver

183 Facilitating cross-border rural micro-firm knowledge exchange: a community of practice perspective

Leana Reinl, Eleanor Owens, Felicity Kelliher and Denis Harrington

197 The role of financial bootstrapping in handling the liability of newness in incubator businesses

Joakim Winborg

207 Where do agri-food entrepreneurs learn their job and are there skills they wished they had learned?

Florence Becot, David Conner and Jane Kolodinsky

217 CASE STUDY Teeling Whiskey Company: a tradition of family entrepreneurship and whiskey distilling

Colm O’Gorman, Martina Brophy and Eric Clinton

227 INTERNET REVIEW The latte linguists and other espresso entrepreneurs

Clifford Conway


Rachel Lewis and Lara Zibarras, eds, Work and Occupational Psychology: Integrating Theory and Practice
(reviewed by Louise Suckley)

Title: Entrepreneurial opportunities for all? Entrepreneurial capability and the Capabilities Approach

Author(s): Nick Wilson and Lee Martin

Abstract: This paper considers the freedom of each and every one of us to choose to pursue entrepreneurial opportunities – that is, to practise entrepreneurship – should we wish to do so. Drawing on the Capabilities Approach, a novel conceptualization of entrepreneurial capability is put forward as the individual freedom to pursue an entrepreneurial opportunity within one’s environment. In shifting analytical attention away from empirical cases of entrepreneurs (that is, those identified post hoc with successfully pursuing an entrepreneurial opportunity) and exploring the potential (or otherwise) of any individual to pursue entrepreneurship in theory, we are forced to ask what is specific about entrepreneurial opportunities and whether they can be pursued by anyone. Our resulting conception of entrepreneurial capability introduces seven universal and necessary conditions for this distinctive type of freedom to be present. The significance of this conceptualization of entrepreneurial capability for entrepreneurship theory and economic and human development policy is discussed.

Read the full article here

Title: Do owners and managers really differ? An examination of satisfaction with overall firm performance in small and medium-sized enterprises

Author(s): Melanie P. Lorenz, John E. Gamble, David L. Turnipseed and K. Mark Weaver

Abstract: This study examines the determinants of satisfaction with overall firm performance by owner- and non-owner-managers of SMEs. It is expected that owners of SMEs will develop contracts for non-owner-managers or monitoring practices that align the interests of agents and principals. As a result of interest alignment, the relationships between entrepreneurial orientation, views on intangible resources, focus on performance metrics and satisfaction with overall financial performance should be similar for owner- and non-owner-managers of SMEs. The study results show differences in risk-taking behaviour and views of resource development between owner-managers and non-owner-managers. However, a strong relationship between short-term performance and overall satisfaction with financial performance existed in the sample of both owner-managers and non-owner-managers.

Read the full article here

Title: Facilitating cross-border rural micro-firm knowledge exchange: a community of practice perspective

Author(s): Leana Reinl, Eleanor Owens, Felicity Kelliher and Denis Harrington

Abstract: Knowledge sharing enhances the capability of rural micro-firms to facilitate economic growth, competitiveness and employment. Knowledge exchange research predominantly focuses on larger firms in the same or related industries, and is of limited relevance in a rural micro-firm context, owing to significant differences in resource availability which can result in strategic knowledge constraints and the meagre development of micro-firms and the regions in which they reside/operate. The aim of this research is to explore the knowledge exchange criteria of rural micro-firms in a cross- border facilitated learning network (FLN). Drawing on the ‘community of practice’ perspective and the closely connected learning network literature, the authors observe and map FLN knowledge exchange activities over a three-year period. The resultant rural FLN knowledge exchange framework demonstrates that discipline and sector-specific barriers can be overcome through cyclical FLN - interventions sensitive to the social proximity requirements necessary for effective cross-border knowledge exchange.

Read the full article here

Title: The role of financial bootstrapping in handling the liability of newness in incubator businesses

Author(s): Joakim Winborg

Abstract: Recent research in entrepreneurship has examined factors that could reduce the challenges facing new businesses (the so-called ‘liabilities of newness’). Seeking to contribute to this research, this study examines the potential role of a financial bootstrapping approach (finding ways of securing resources on favourable terms). Even though financial bootstrapping has received increased attention in entrepreneurship research, our understanding of the relative importance of financial bootstrapping is undeveloped. This study focuses on new businesses established in Swedish university incubators and is based on data from a questionnaire sent to 120 new business founders. Given the role of incubators to provide resources and contacts on favourable terms, it can be argued that they represent an institutionalized arena in which new businesses can identify bootstrapping possibilities. The findings show that the possession of a financial bootstrapping approach is beneficial for handling the external liability of newness, whereas no significant effects were found on the internal liability of newness.

Read the full article here

Title: Where do agri-food entrepreneurs learn their job and are there skills they wished they had learned?

Author(s): Florence Becot, David Conner and Jane Kolodinsky

Abstract: The agri-food system plays a vital role in the socioeconomic well-being of the USA. In rural Vermont, the setting for this study, the contributions are even larger. Agri-food businesses contribute an estimated 12% of the state’s gross domestic product and comprise 13% of private sector establishments. The community economic development potential of fostering successful food entrepreneurs suggests a role for higher education in educating the next generation of entrepreneurs. This study explores gaps in entrepreneurial knowledge and skills. Using a survey of agri-food entrepreneurs designed to obtain an understanding of the tools needed for success, the authors found that entrepreneurs valued a wide range of skills, making it difficult to tailor training. The importance of informal learning was also confirmed. The authors conclude that the role of higher education in entrepreneurial education is to educate students to think critically, recognize opportunities, develop networks and identify resources. In addition, it is critical to provide students with exposure to entrepreneurs in the field.

Read the full article here

Title: Case Study – Teeling Whiskey Company: a tradition of family entrepreneurship and whiskey distilling

Author(s): Colm O’Gorman, Martina Brophy and Eric Clinton

Abstract: This case study explores the origins of a new high-growth family start-up competing in a traditional industry. Teeling Whiskey Company Ltd (TWC) is the brainchild of entrepreneur Jack Teeling. This new venture stems from another high-profile, family-based business named Cooley Distillery. Jack was Managing Director of Cooley Distillery, the business his father founded in 1987. At Cooley Distillery, he acquired a wealth of professional experience in whiskey distilling and selling. When the distillery was sold to a large US spirits company in 2012, Jack pursued his own entrepreneurial venture in Irish whiskey. A year after the business was founded, Jack was joined by his brother Stephen Teeling, and together they have shaped their idea for a boutique, premium whiskey distiller producing innovative offerings into a fast growing, internationalized business. Jack and Stephen need to build a niche for TWC, as many new distilleries are due to enter the market.

Read the full article here

Title: Internet Review – The latte linguists and other espresso entrepreneurs

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentary on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation information on the Web.

Read the full article here

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