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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Professor Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Professor Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 5,000-8,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: McMullan, W.E., and Vesper, K.H. (2000), 'Becoming an entrepreneur: a participant's perspective', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 1, No 1, pp 33-43.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.


Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.


Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Professor Gerard McElwee, Huddersfield Business School, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk.

Regional Editors: Asia - Professor Manoj Joshi, Amity University, India; Canada and USA - Professor E. McMullan, University of Calgary, Canada; Europe - Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, University of Strathclyde, UK

Case Study Editor: Dr Robert Smith, Reader in Entrepreneurship, Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, UK. E-mail: r.smith-a(a)rgu.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: s.dobson(a)shu.ac.uk.

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    Global Independent Research, UK
  • Dr Susan Mayson
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Professor Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Dr Lorraine Warren
    University of Southampton, UK
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK

November 2014 Issue (VOL 15, NO 4)

227 Entrepreneurship in the informal economy: a product of too much or too little state intervention?

Colin C. Williams and Alvaro Martinez

239 Organizational slack and the capability life-cycle: the case of related diversification in a technological SME

Pascale Bueno Merino, Samuel Grandval, John Upson and Stéphanie Vergnaud

251 Perspectives on the potential for social media to improve communication in small business–bank relationships

Mark Durkin, Pauric McGowan and Lisa Murray

265 Towards an instrument for measuring strategic motives for corporate ventures

Kent Thorén

279 CASE STUDY Succession in the family business: challenges for successors from an entrepreneurial perspective

Daniela Weismeier-Sammer and Isabella R. Hatak

285 INTERNET REVIEW The vlogger entrepreneurs

Clifford Conway

M.T.T. Thai and E. Turkina, eds, Entrepreneurship in the Informal Economy
(reviewed by Michelle Davey)

289 Index to Volume 15, 2014

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Title: Entrepreneurship in the informal economy: a product of too much or too little state intervention?

Author(s): Colin C. Williams and Alvaro Martinez

Abstract: Over the past decade or so, two competing theoretical perspectives have arisen that explain participation in informal entrepreneurship as resulting from either too little or too much state intervention. To evaluate these competing explanations critically, the authors report on a 2012 UK survey of 595 small business owners. Twenty per cent of these owners said that they had traded informally when starting up their ventures, and the authors examine and evaluate their reasons for doing so. It was found that 41% of the entrepreneurs attributed their off-the-books trading to too little state intervention (for example, a lack of government advice and support), 35% to too much intervention (burdensome red tape, high taxes, etc) and 24% to a mix of both factors. However, a multivariate analysis displays significant socio-demographic, firm-level and regional variations in the reasons. The outcome is a call to move towards more nuanced context-bound explanations of entrepreneurship in the informal economy.

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Title: Organizational slack and the capability life-cycle: the case of related diversification in a technological SME

Author(s): Pascale Bueno Merino, Samuel Grandval, John Upson and Stéphanie Vergnaud

Abstract: The success of related diversification is not a given. Although synergies between a firm’s businesses may exist, problems can arise in the sharing of key resources and capabilities as the firm attempts to exploit the synergies. To achieve success in related diversification, firms often leverage their organizational slack, or resources and capabilities that are in excess of the level demanded by their normal operations. However, sharing is difficult when firms have insufficient organizational slack, and this can lead to an overstretching of shared resources. Through case study methodology, this paper investigates how one technological SME managed its limited organizational slack while engaged in related diversification. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms that contribute to diversification failure. Consideration is also given to how the capability life-cycle may affect capability sharing in related diversification efforts.

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Title: Perspectives on the potential for social media to improve communication in small business–bank relationships

Author(s): Mark Durkin, Pauric McGowan and Lisa Murray

Abstract: Relationships with the small business sector have traditionally been largely neglected by banking institutions. However, as a result of recent turmoil in the world’s economy and the ongoing impact of the recession, banks find themselves in a quandary about how best to support those within the small firm sector in times of tight credit. With increasing regulation, market fragmentation and increased competition, banks face real challenges to improve communication and establish profitable and long-term relationships with their small firm clients. Through conceptual modelling and empirical research, this paper explores the small business–bank relationship and examines the extent to which social media may facilitate more effective communication in that relationship. A qualitative research methodology uncovers perceptions of both senior bank executives and small firm owner-managers with respect to the perceived value social media can bring to communication within the small firm– bank relationship. The findings indicate that bankers saw little merit in any communication opportunities afforded by social media, while the owner-managers could see great value in such new media channels for improved communication. Through theoretical modelling, the differences in perception were classified at the levels of context, content and competency. It is concluded that, while social media could add value to the small firm–bank relationship, the medium would be most effective when used in a secondary capacity to personal face-to-face relationship building.

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Title: Towards an instrument for measuring strategic motives for corporate ventures

Author(s): Kent Thorén

Abstract: This article proposes that corporate entrepreneurship and strategy can be linked in a means– ends relationship if it is possible to determine the motives behind individual corporate ventures. To facilitate future empirical investigations, it develops an instrument for measuring such motives, and tests this instrument on a sample of 274 ventures in small and medium-sized enterprises. The findings confirm that most of the ventures examined are linked to strategic concerns. Moreover, the instrument design provides dimensions for motives rather than categories, because dimensions can be more freely evaluated and combined in future research, for instance in the form of venture motive profiles. The dimensions, obtained through factor analysis, are orientation in regard to sought effects (improving business or gaining competence), posture (offensive versus defensive) and adaptive style (proactive versus reactive). Researchers can benefit from the instrument in empirical work, and their findings can in turn be of value for both practitioners and policy makers.

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Title: Case Study – Succession in the family business: challenges for successors from an entrepreneurial perspective

Author(s): Daniela Weismeier-Sammer and Isabella R. Hatak

Abstract: Kronmann Wholesale and Retail is an outstanding family business with more than 300 years of history. This teaching case tells the story of two cousins who follow their fathers into a business full of tradition. The case gives students the opportunity to gain insights into the complex succession process of family businesses, as well as the challenges with which successors are confronted in the course of family business succession.

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Title: Internet Review – The vlogger entrepreneurs

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentary on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation information on the Web.

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