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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Dr Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company
Contents

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Dr Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)shu.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 5,000-8,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: McMullan, W.E., and Vesper, K.H. (2000), 'Becoming an entrepreneur: a participant's perspective', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 1, No 1, pp 33-43.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.

Refereeing

Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.

Copyright

Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Dr Gerard McElwee, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)shu.ac.uk.

Regional Editors: Asia - Professor Manoj Joshi, Amity University, India; Canada and USA - Professor E. McMullan, University of Calgary, Canada; Europe - Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, University of Strathclyde, UK

Case Study Editor: Dr Robert Smith, Reader in Entrepreneurship, Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, UK. E-mail: r.smith-a(a)rgu.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: s.dobson(a)shu.ac.uk.

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    University of the West of Scotland, UK
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Dr Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Dr Lorraine Warren
    University of Southampton, UK
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK

August 2014 Issue (VOL 15, NO 3)

SPECIAL ISSUE: The competitiveness of SMEs in the food sector – exploring possibilities for growth
Guest editors: Barry Quinn, Lynsey McKitterick, Rodney McAdam and Adele Dunn

143 Introduction

147 Towards an integrative view of innovation in food sector SMEs

Anahita Baregheh, David Hemsworth and Jennifer Rowley

159 Barriers to employee-driven innovation: a study of a regional medium-sized bakery

Satu Aaltonen and Ulla Hytti

169 The use of networks as a strategic approach of micro-enterprises in the agri- food sector

Philipp Brinkmann, Andreas Håkansson, Indrė Būtienė, Hanne Kjærsgard, Birthe Kofoed Mortensen, Janet Martens, Bitte Müller-Hansen and Anton Petrenko

179 Investigating the role of entrepreneurial leadership and social capital in SME competitiveness in the food and drink industry

Lise Hunter and Jonathan Lean

191 How do innovation partners differ with respect to innovation type and stage in the innovation journey of farmers?

Evelien Lambrecht, Bianka Kühne and Xavier Gellynck

205 Barriers to micro food enterprise engagement in business support programmes

Barry Quinn, Lynsey McKitterick, Rodney McAdam and Adele Dunn

219 INTERNET REVIEW SMEs competing in the food sector

Clifford Conway

221 BOOK REVIEWS

Piero Formica, Stories of Innovation for the Millennial Generation: The Lynceus Long View
(reviewed by Gianpaolo Abatecola)
Leo-Paul Dana, Asian Models of Entrepreneurship – from the Indian Union and the Kingdom of Nepal to the Japanese Archipelago: Context, Policy and Practice
(reviewed by Gerard McElwee)

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Title: Towards an integrative view of innovation in food sector SMEs

Author(s): Anahita Baregheh, David Hemsworth and Jennifer Rowley

Abstract: Most literature on innovation focuses on organizational engagement with innovation types in isolation from one another. By establishing the interdependency of innovation types in SMEs in the UK food sector, this study provides evidence to support the case for a more holistic approach in innovation research. Thus the study both contributes to the limited research on innovation in food sector SMEs and supports the integrative view of innovation. Using questionnaire-based data, structured equation modelling was used to propose and test the interrelationships between the level of engagement with product, process, position and paradigm innovation. A significant positive relationship between innovation types was identified.

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Title: Barriers to employee-driven innovation: a study of a regional medium-sized bakery

Author(s): Satu Aaltonen and Ulla Hytti

Abstract: Innovativeness and employee-driven innovations in particular are important sources of competitiveness for small and medium-sized food companies. The fierce competition in the food industry is forcing these companies to increase their operational efficiency in order to compete with the large companies in the market. This paper investigates barriers to innovations in the bakery sector through a case study of a growth-oriented regional bakery. The study contributes to new contextualized knowledge of employee-driven innovation activity in small food production companies. It provides a nuanced understanding of how the manufacturing context of a bakery leads to specific constraints on innovative employee behaviour, and of how the context and the human, organizational and physical resources interact with employee-driven innovation activity.

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Title: The use of networks as a strategic approach of micro-enterprises in the agri-food sector

Author(s): Philipp Brinkmann, Andreas Håkansson, Indrė Būtienė, Hanne Kjærsgard, Birthe Kofoed Mortensen, Janet Martens, Bitte Müller-Hansen and Anton Petrenko

Abstract: Increasing competition and regulatory changes place micro-sized enterprises (MSEs) in the agri-food sector under strong competitive pressure. Smallness may be a substantial barrier to success. Previous research suggests that networks can be used strategically to combat these constraints. However, there is a lack of understanding of the extent to which this finding may be applicable to MSEs and the local agri-food sector. Based on eight in-depth interviews of agri-food MSEs, it is concluded that MSEs apply networks to strengthen their competitive advantage – for example, by forming stronger customer relationships. The MSEs are using their networks to combat their size- related disadvantages, but not by growing; rather, the networks enable them to remain small and independent while further strengthening their position as small producers.

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Title: Investigating the role of entrepreneurial leadership and social capital in SME competitiveness in the food and drink industry

Author(s): Lise Hunter and Jonathan Lean

Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of social capital on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises, using entrepreneurial leadership as the explanatory variable. It employs a data set of 359 food and drink manufacturers in the south-west of England to develop a structural equation model of interdependence between social capital, leadership and entrepreneurship. The study reveals that social ties with local associations and professional services providers are predominant on both structural and relational dimensions. The resulting inadequate level of brokerage obstructs the market knowledge required for vision formulation, despite the fact that ‘hard work’, ‘continued improvement’ and ‘ambition’ are common shared values in this sector. The paper concludes by recommending training to fill the knowledge gaps impeding the sector’s competitiveness.

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Title: How do innovation partners differ with respect to innovation type and stage in the innovation journey of farmers?

Author(s): Evelien Lambrecht, Bianka Kühne and Xavier Gellynck

Abstract: The locus of innovation is the network within which a farm is embedded. This paper investigates the relationships between network partners and innovation (types and stages in the process) in agriculture, which is unique in this field. In contrast to the majority of innovation studies, the authors also include marketing and organizational innovations and investigate the need for different partners along the innovation journey. The study is based on in-depth interviews with farmers. The findings provide useful research-related and managerial implications that enable farmers and network coordinators to improve the innovation capacity in agriculture via networking. The main conclusion is that, depending on the stage in the innovation journey and the type of innovation, different resources and hence different partners are needed. Therefore, farmers must be aware of the importance of partner suitability and network heterogeneity related to the type of innovation and stage in their innovation process.

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Title: Barriers to micro food enterprise engagement in business support programmes

Author(s): Barry Quinn, Lynsey McKitterick, Rodney McAdam and Adele Dunn

Abstract: Micro food producers contribute to the fabric of the local rural community and economy in developing a local food culture, employment and gross domestic product (GDP). This paper explores the range and effectiveness of government-based business policies and support programmes at both regional and firm levels for micro food enterprises, and the barriers to micro-firm engagement in such programmes. The authors present empirical evidence from interviews with key stakeholders and micro- sized food producers based in Northern Ireland. The evidence suggests that micro food producers are engaging with introductory levels of support, but that key barriers to further adoption of support include the understanding and coherence of support; regulations and the level of bureaucracy; and various issues concerning networking capabilities. The authors propose areas for future research and highlight the implications for future policy support provision.

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Title: Internet Review: SMEs competing in the food sector

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentaries on Web-based information on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation.

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