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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Dr Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company
Contents

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Dr Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)shu.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 5,000-8,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: McMullan, W.E., and Vesper, K.H. (2000), 'Becoming an entrepreneur: a participant's perspective', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 1, No 1, pp 33-43.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.

Refereeing

Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.

Copyright

Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Dr Gerard McElwee, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)shu.ac.uk.

Regional Editors: Asia - Professor Manoj Joshi, Amity University, India; Canada and USA - Professor E. McMullan, University of Calgary, Canada; Europe - Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, ALBA Graduate School of Business at The American College of Greece.

Case Study Editor: Dr Robert Smith, Reader in Entrepreneurship, Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, UK. E-mail: r.smith-a(a)rgu.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: s.dobson(a)shu.ac.uk.

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    University of the West of Scotland, UK
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Dr Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Dr Lorraine Warren
    University of Southampton, UK
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK

May 2014 Issue (VOL 15, NO 2)

7 Organizational renewal in family firms

Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, Vasilis Theoharakis and Angelo Bisignano

79 Fundamental entrepreneurial planning processes: resource assessment and opportunity evaluation

Kevin C. Cox

89 Fool’s gold? The value of business awards to small businesses

Paul Jones, Joanne Scherle, David Pickernell, Gary Packham, Heather Skinner and Tom Peisl

101 Entrepreneurial orientation and farm business performance: the moderating role of on- farm diversification and location

Asbjørn Veidal and Ola Flaten

113 Beyond the marginalization thesis: an examination of the motivations of informal entrepreneurs in Sub-Saharan Africa: insights from Ghana

Kwame Adom

127 CASE STUDY: Let the cork fly – creativity and innovation in a family business

Luísa Carvalho and Bill Williams

135 INTERNET REVIEW: Supporting young entrepreneurs

Clifford Conway

137 BOOK REVIEW Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers and Challengers
(reviewed by Zen Parry)

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Title: Organizational renewal in family firms

Author(s): Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, Vasilis Theoharakis and Angelo Bisignano

Abstract: The authors investigate whether organizational renewal impacts on the performance of family firms and identify aspects of ‘familiness’ acting as facilitators or inhibitors of organizational renewal. A survey instrument captured data on relevant family-related characteristics, organizational renewal and firm performance from the CEOs of 140 family firms in Greece. Regression analysis was used to test hypotheses. Strong evidence was found that organizational renewal impacts positively on the profit growth of family firms. Where CEOs had a strong growth aspiration for the future and were firm founders, and where succession planning was taking place, renewal was more likely to be enacted. Efforts are focused on creating a business that will thrive in the future, and not on curating an organizational heirloom shaped and constrained by the past. Their strong future focus liberates these family firms from possible cross-generational path dependency, allowing the special resources of their family’s business to act instead as a springboard for ongoing organizational renewal. Conversely, those family firms with a high level of family altruism indicated by extensive kin employment seem to be more likely to be destined for stagnation than stewardship, as they promote (past-focused) historical family sentiment and tradition. The dangers of cross-generational path dependency indeed seem pronounced in such past-focused firms.

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Title: Fundamental entrepreneurial planning processes: resource assessment and opportunity evaluation

Author(s): Kevin C. Cox

Abstract: Research focused on new venture planning has received much attention in the entrepreneurship literature. However, while this stream of research has enjoyed substantial development, it also faces numerous challenges that must be addressed to ensure future progress. This paper identifies existing challenges in research focused on entrepreneurial planning and offers resolution via the development of a more parsimonious but fuller conceptualization of new venture planning. Focus is placed specifically on the most basic and fundamental planning processes and on the identification of important internal and external factors that influence how entrepreneurs progress through these fundamental planning processes.

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Title: Fool’s gold? The value of business awards to small businesses

Author(s): Paul Jones, Joanne Scherle, David Pickernell, Gary Packham, Heather Skinner and Tom Peisl

Abstract: This study explores the value and impact that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) derive from winning business awards. Value and impact are explored in terms of enhanced profitability and performance, network development, enterprise profile and brand identity. This study employs a case study methodology with 10 SMEs drawn from a major business awards competition. Key staff were interviewed in these SMEs to explore the impact of winning the business award on the internal and external business environments. Additional organizational documentation and evidence were also collected from each SME. The results indicate both short-term and long-term impacts. In the short term, enterprises benefited in terms of enhanced brand identity in their business network and community. This resulted in enhanced sales revenue and enterprise profile. Moreover, internally, winning an award acted as a motivator for enterprise employees, enhancing their productivity and attitudes towards the business. In the longer term, these factors became less apparent, but the majority of respondents continued to exploit their business award for ongoing strategic advantage.

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Title: Entrepreneurial orientation and farm business performance: the moderating role of on-farm diversification and location

Author(s): Asbjørn Veidal and Ola Flaten

Abstract: This study advances research on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in the farming sector by examining how the configuration of on-farm diversification and location shapes the relationship between EO and farm business performance (archival financial performance and self-reported non- financial performance). Data were collected from 400 farms included in the Norwegian Farm Business Survey. The research hypotheses were tested using hierarchical moderated regression analysis. As hypothesized, a positive relationship was found between EO and non-financial performance. Other hypotheses were not confirmed. Surprisingly, EO showed a negative relationship with financial performance. The interactive effect of EO and on-farm diversification on financial performance was negative. Configurations of EO, diversification and location did not account for performance differences among farms. Overall, these findings suggest that, rather than enhancing EO, farm business performance might be improved by a more inwardly focused orientation towards efficient production by increasing managerial ability.

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Title: Beyond the marginalization thesis: an examination of the motivations of informal entrepreneurs in Sub-Saharan Africa: insights from Ghana

Author(s): Kwame Adom

Abstract: For years, informal entrepreneurs were largely classified as ‘marginalized’ and were perceived to be conducting marginalized ventures for survival. However, this perception gradually changed between the middle of the twentieth century and the start of the new millennium. In analysing the motivations of informal entrepreneurs from Ghana, based on face-to-face interviews with 150 respondents, the key findings were that the motivations of the entrepreneurs transcended the marginalization thesis and that informal entrepreneurs were often motivated not by necessity or opportunity, but rather by an amalgamation of the two. Although women constitute the majority of the necessity-driven informal entrepreneurs, in time some of them become opportunity-driven entrepreneurs. The implication is that there is a need for a shift from necessity–opportunity dualism to a unified approach, which depicts the motivations of informal entrepreneurs in more detail, and for broader research in other economic landscapes.

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Title: Case Study: Let the cork fly – creativity and innovation in a family business

Author(s): Luísa Carvalho and Bill Williams

Abstract: This case study explores the growth and internationalization of Pelcor, a traditional company situated in the remote south of Portugal. The Correia family has had a cork factory for over 40 years and they originally produced cork exclusively to sell to other companies. However, due to a crisis in their traditional markets at the turn of the century, a young woman entrepreneur introduced significant changes to the business. This case illustrates how a brand can be developed for international growth and expansion by a small family business. It also highlights the role of an entrepreneur in introducing modernity, innovation and product diversification to allow such a small family firm to reach global markets. Additionally, by using grades of cork that were formerly rejected as waste material, the firm has contributed significantly to the sustainability of this natural resource.

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Title: Internet Review: Supporting young entrepreneurs

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentaries on Web-based information on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation.

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