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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Professor Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Professor Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 4,000-6,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words and summarizing the paper.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand thus: (Smith and Jones, 2012). Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: Smith, R., and Air, C. (2012), 'No choices, no chances: how contemporary enterprise culture is failing Britain’s underclass’, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 13, No 3, pp 103-113.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Secondary quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.


Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.


Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Professor Gerard McElwee, Huddersfield Business School, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk.

Regional Editors: Asia - Professor Manoj Joshi, Amity University, India; Canada and USA - Professor E. McMullan, University of Calgary, Canada; Europe - Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, University of Strathclyde, UK

Case Study Editor: Professor Robert Smith, School of Business and Enterprise, University of the West of Scotland, Dumfries, UK. E-mail: rob.smith(a)uws.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: s.dobson(a)shu.ac.uk.

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    Global Independent Research, UK
  • Dr Susan Mayson
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Professor Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Professor Lorraine Warren
    Massey University, New Zealand
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK

November 2015 Issue (VOL 16, NO 4)

Guest editors: Jill R. Kickul and Lisa K. Gundry

233 Introduction

237 Opportunity types, social entrepreneurship and innovation: evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics

Diana M. Hechavarría and Chris Welter

253 Social entrepreneurial intentions: China versus the USA – is there a difference?

Rui Yang, Moriah Meyskens, Congcong Zheng and Lingyan Hu

269 Built to scale: a comparative case analysis, assessing how social enterprises scale

Jennifer M. Walske and Laura D. Tyson

283 Bricolage in social entrepreneurship: how creative resource mobilization fosters greater social impact

Sophie Bacq, Laurel F. Ofstein, Jill R. Kickul and Lisa K. Gundry

291 CASE STUDY Drishtee: Balancing social mission and financial sustainability in rural India

Geoff Desa and James L. Koch


Scaling social enterprise through franchising

Clifford Conway


Björn Bjerke, About Entrepreneurship
(reviewed by Helen Hellaby)
Helen Fitzhugh and Nicky Stevenson, Inside Social Enterprise: Looking to the Future
(reviewed by Laurel F. Ofstein)

315 Index to Volume 16, 2015

Title: Opportunity types, social entrepreneurship and innovation: evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics

Author(s): Diana M. Hechavarría and Chris Welter

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there are differences in the degree of innovation as moderated by the type of opportunity pursued – found or formed – among social and non-social start-ups. The authors aim to further the discussion on opportunity types by drawing on an expansive data set, the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics I and II, to test the notion of opportunity types and their implications for innovation among social entrepreneurs. The findings suggest that social ventures are, on average, considerably more innovative than other kinds of start-ups. Furthermore, the authors find evidence which suggests that social entrepreneurs pursuing formed opportunities are less likely to be innovative.

Read the full article here

Title: Social entrepreneurial intentions: China versus the USA – is there a difference?

Author(s): Rui Yang, Moriah Meyskens, Congcong Zheng and Lingyan Hu

Abstract: This study evaluates how cultural dimensions influence the determinants of social entrepreneurial intentions. The authors develop a survey instrument and analyse the determinants of the social entrepreneurial intentions of 236 individuals from China and the USA through factor analysis and structural equation modelling. They find that, when forming their social entrepreneurial intentions, those in China are influenced more by subjective norms and less by behavioural attitudes than those in the USA. The results thus suggest that the concept of social entrepreneurship is not uniform across the two cultures and that individuals are influenced by their culture when forming their social entrepreneurial intentions.

Read the full article here

Title: Built to scale: a comparative case analysis, assessing how social enterprises scale

Author(s): Jennifer M. Walske and Laura D. Tyson

Abstract: A persistent, nagging question among social entrepreneurs and those who research social entrepreneurs is why some social enterprises scale while others do not. Of late, much credit has been given to design innovation, design thinking, fast pivots and the Business Model Canvas. But what if we are placing too much emphasis on design innovation and pivoting, and missing other key important factors that help social enterprises scale quickly? While innovation is clearly important, and arguably a necessary baseline, the authors’ interviews with successful social entrepreneurs have pointed more to the importance of sourcing financial capital, building out their supply chain – both in production and distribution – and obtaining early media recognition. These three factors created a virtuous cycle, allowing these firms to increase their revenues, employees and impact substantially each year during their first four years after founding.

Read the full article here

Title: Bricolage in social entrepreneurship: how creative resource mobilization fosters greater social impact

Author(s): Sophie Bacq, Laurel F. Ofstein, Jill R. Kickul and Lisa K. Gundry

Abstract: Social entrepreneurs face unique challenges in their dual pursuit of social and financial value creation to address pressing societal problems. While social entrepreneurs’ behaviour and actions have been highlighted as an important source of creativity and innovation, this issue has largely been under- researched in the field of entrepreneurship. This paper explores the role of social entrepreneurs’ bricolage behaviour in enabling their enterprises to scale their operations. The authors test their hypothesis on a unique database of 123 social enterprises using an online survey. They find a positive relationship between entrepreneurial bricolage and the scaling of social impact. The paper concludes with study implications, post hoc analyses and limitations and directions for future research.

Read the full article here

Title: Case study – Drishtee: Balancing social mission and financial sustainability in rural India

Author(s): Geoff Desa and James L. Koch

Abstract: This case follows the early developments of Drishtee, an Indian social enterprise, and the evolving thoughts of its CEO – Satyan Mishra. Drishtee, founded in 2001, was initially developed to address opportunities in information and communications technology (ICT) in rural India and scaled to serve people in over 9,000 villages. While the initial social opportunity appeared to be fairly straightforward (to provide fee-based digital government documents to rural citizens), a deeper analysis of the social problem leads the reader into the tangled world of social business. The venture faces regulatory and disintermediation challenges when trying to scale the provision of government services. As the venture starts to scale, it faces two distinct pivot points: first, when deciding whether to maintain a partnership with the government and, second, when trying to create a financially viable business model. The reader bears witness to the underlying tensions between social mission and market pressures as the company evolves from a government service provider to a commercial kiosk operator.

Read the full article here

Title: Internet Review – Scaling social enterprise through franchising

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentary on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation information on the Web.

Read the full article here

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