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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Dr Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Dr Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)shu.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 5,000-8,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: McMullan, W.E., and Vesper, K.H. (2000), 'Becoming an entrepreneur: a participant's perspective', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 1, No 1, pp 33-43.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.


Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.


Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Dr Gerard McElwee, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, City Campus, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)shu.ac.uk.

Regional Editors: Asia - Professor Manoj Joshi, Amity University, India; Canada and USA - Professor E. McMullan, University of Calgary, Canada; Europe - Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, ALBA Graduate School of Business at The American College of Greece.

Case Study Editor: Dr Robert Smith, Reader in Entrepreneurship, Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, UK. E-mail: r.smith-a(a)rgu.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: s.dobson(a)shu.ac.uk.

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    University of the West of Scotland, UK
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Dr Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Dr Lorraine Warren
    University of Southampton, UK
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK

February 2014 Issue (VOL 15, NO 1)

5 Entrepreneurial remixing: bricolage and postmodern resources

Dave Valliere and Thomas Gegenhuber

17 The interplay of entrepreneurial and network activities in the entrepreneurial process: a relational analysis

Katja Pellinen

29 Sustainable high-growth entrepreneurship: a study of rapidly growing firms in the Scania region

Jonas Gabrielsson, Åsa Lindholm Dahlstrand and Diamanto Politis

41 Regional core competencies as a basis for entrepreneurship? The German hop-growing area of the Hallertau

Harald Pechlaner and Monika Bachinger

51 Case Study: Entrepreneurs held hostage: hang-ups at TravelHangar.com

Prescott C. Ensign and Anthony A. Woods

59 Internet Review: Serial entrepreneurs

Clifford Conway

61 Book Review: John McIntire, Silvester Ivanaj and Vera Ivanaj, eds, Strategies for Sustainable Technologies and Innovations
(reviewed by Oliver Heidrich)

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Title: Entrepreneurial remixing: bricolage and postmodern resources

Author(s): Dave Valliere and Thomas Gegenhuber

Abstract: The innovation of organizations has been likened to the improvisation capacity of musicians playing jazz – a modernist form of music that emphasizes improvisation within the boundaries of a particular genre. But recent bricolage research suggests that this metaphor is incomplete when applied to entrepreneurs. The innovation of entrepreneurs lies not only in the improvisational combining of resources, but also in the eclectic selection of resources and the embedding of these innovative combinations into novel contexts. This makes entrepreneurs less like jazz musicians and more like hip- hop DJs – a postmodern form of music that emphasizes sampling and remixing of musical fragments from diverse genres. This paper places entrepreneurial bricolage into a larger postmodern context and thereby identifies other unexplored implications for entrepreneurial value creation. By drawing from postmodern theorists, it explicates broader design principles that are latent only in the current narrow bricolage perspectives. A model is developed for how entrepreneurs enact postmodern resources and markets through hyperdifferentiation, how they develop novel pastiches using techniques such as bricolage, and how they embed these pastiches into novel contexts that create value from three distinct sources. Specific propositions and implications for entrepreneurs and researchers are developed.

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Title: The interplay of entrepreneurial and network activities in the entrepreneurial process: a relational analysis

Author(s): Katja Pellinen

Abstract: Research on the entrepreneurial process has focused on either structural or agency-related aspects from the point of view of an individual entrepreneurial actor, while the concrete activities and their relationality have gained less scholarly attention. This study analyses the interplay between entrepreneurial and network activities in the entrepreneurial process through a case study of technology incubator firms. The study shows how entrepreneurial actors’ understanding of their resources and positions varies and develops during the process, and how they use networks and relationships in various ways. The results help to explain the variety inherent in entrepreneurial processes and highlight the multifaceted role of networks in those processes.

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Title: Sustainable high-growth entrepreneurship: a study of rapidly growing firms in the Scania region

Author(s): Jonas Gabrielsson, Åsa Lindholm Dahlstrand and Diamanto Politis

Abstract: The importance of high-growth entrepreneurship is widely acknowledged. Previous studies, however, have shown that only a few rapidly growing firms manage to sustain their growth trajectory over long periods. This paper addresses high-growth entrepreneurship in the Scania region of Sweden. The authors analyse a sample of high-growth firms and find that only a minority exhibit sustained high growth. They also compare sustainable high-growth firms with temporary high-growth firms, using unique data about their innovation and R&D activities. The analysis shows that sustainable high- growth firms are more often involved in activities aimed at developing and improving existing production processes, and are also less committed to international operations in new foreign markets. The results can be used to advise policy makers on how to understand and support high-growth entrepreneurship in regional innovation systems.

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Title: Regional core competencies as a basis for entrepreneurship? The German hop-growing area of the Hallertau

Author(s): Harald Pechlaner and Monika Bachinger

Abstract: Regions feature specific network structures, identities and knowledge. These characteristics resemble social capital, which is recognized as contributing to entrepreneurship and innovation. This study examines whether entrepreneurial advantages, which are generated by social capital in a regional context, exist in a sustainable perspective. According to the competence-based view, sustainable competitive advantages are based on core competencies, which are valuable, rare and transferable to several markets. Therefore, this study examines social capital as a regional core competency and transfers the competence-based view to a regional context. This is achieved on the basis of the Hallertau region, a hop-planting area in Germany. The paper analyses whether network structure, knowledge and identity, as building blocks of social capital, display core competence quality. As such, this study contributes to the discussion on whether an enterprise’s regional embeddedness matters with respect to its sustainable competitiveness.

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Title: Case Study: Entrepreneurs held hostage: hang-ups at TravelHangar.com

Author(s): Prescott C. Ensign and Anthony A. Woods

Abstract: This case addresses how students might actually proceed in starting their own Internet company. It is inevitable that many students will currently be thinking about their big idea that will reshape the Internet. A story from this business area is easy to relate to for most students, and discussion flows readily. The case revolves around the two founders’ issues with their business as they move further away from the university setting. When the venture was created, they did all the work, including sales. As they moved on to careers, they found students to replace them on the sales front. As they slowly moved out of the day-to-day workings of the enterprise, a problem arose with their new key sales person – he was doing all the work and only getting a portion of the returns.

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Title: Internet Review: Serial entrepreneurs

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentaries on Web-based information on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation.

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