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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Professor Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Professor Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 4,000-6,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words and summarizing the paper.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand thus: (Smith and Jones, 2012). Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: Smith, R., and Air, C. (2012), 'No choices, no chances: how contemporary enterprise culture is failing Britain’s underclass’, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 13, No 3, pp 103-113.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Secondary quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.


Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.


Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Professor Gerard McElwee, Huddersfield Business School, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk.

Case Study Editor: Professor Robert Smith, School of Business and Enterprise, University of the West of Scotland, Dumfries, UK. E-mail: rob.smith(a)uws.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, International Centre for Transformational Entrepreneurship, Coventry University, Jordan Well, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK. E-mail: stephen.dobson@coventry.ac.uk

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd
    University of Strathclyde, UK
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    Global Independent Research, UK
  • Dr Susan Mayson
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Professor Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Professor Lorraine Warren
    Massey University, New Zealand
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK
Effective 1st April 2016, IP Publishing and its journals have been acquired by SAGE Publishing. Please click here for more information.


5 Cooperation in new product development: an analysis of small technology- based firms

Nick Leithold, Heiko Haase and Arndt Lautenschläger

15 Business sense or subjective satisfaction? Exploring the outcomes of business planning comprehensiveness in the SME context

Oleksiy Osiyevskyy, Sílvia Fernandes Costa and Cameron Maranville Madill

31 Determinants of SME exporting: insights and implications

David Pickernell, Paul Jones, Piers Thompson and Gary Packham

43 Entrepreneurship orientation in policy making: a determinant of collaboration and organizational adaptability in entrepreneurship policy delivery

Pia Schou Nielsen

55 Discussion Paper: An alternative format for the elevator pitch

Michael A. McCollough, Berna Devezer and George Tanner

65 Case Study: Strategic thinking: intelligent opportunism and emergent strategy – the case of Strategic Engineering Services

Steven Pattinson

71 Letter to the Editor: Work in the company of coffee

Leigh Morland

73 Internet Review: Creative destruction in the future

Clifford Conway

75 Book Review

Rui Baptista and João Leitão, eds, Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, and Regional Development: Labor Network Flows, and Industry Growth
(reviewed by Helena Alves)

Title: Cooperation in new product development: an analysis of small technology-based firms

Author(s): Nick Leithold, Heiko Haase and Arndt Lautenschläger

Abstract: This study analyses the drivers and impact of cooperation with external partners in the new product development (NPD) of small technology-based firms (STBFs). The authors used a mixed- method research design, carrying out 49 semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with STBFs in Germany. For data analysis, inter-coder agreement, content analysis, descriptive categorizations and contingency tables using Bayesian probabilities were applied. The authors found that STBFs predominantly cooperated with universities, non-university research institutions or laboratories, other enterprises and public agencies. Resource shortages in NPD were frequent among the STBFs in the study and, when faced with such shortages, STBFs had a higher propensity to cooperate with external partners. More specifically, qualification deficits were the most prominent cooperation driver. Furthermore, cooperation with external partners had a positive influence on the innovation success of STBFs. Several theoretical and practical implications are presented.

Read the full article here

Title: Business sense or subjective satisfaction? Exploring the outcomes of business planning comprehensiveness in the SME context

Author(s): Oleksiy Osiyevskyy, Sílvia Fernandes Costa and Cameron Maranville Madill

Abstract: Does business planning have any impact on the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)? Despite numerous studies in management and entrepreneurship literature, the answer remains contested. The authors address this research question empirically by exploring the composite business planning comprehensiveness construct, reflecting the degree to which business planning practices are embraced in all domains of firm management. Employing a survey of SME owners in the USA and Canada (N = 568), they explore the performance outcomes of this construct. The results demonstrate that business planning comprehensiveness is positively associated with the operational and subjective performance of the firm, but not with its financial performance.

Read the full article here

Title: Determinants of SME exporting: insights and implications

Author(s): David Pickernell, Paul Jones, Piers Thompson and Gary Packham

Abstract: This study offers insights into determinants of SME exporting according to the characteristics of exporting firms and their resources, thus contributing to a limited literature. The dataset comprised 4,838 respondents from a survey of the UK Federation of Small Businesses. The dependent variable used was two-category (‘do not export’ and ‘export’), allowing a binary logistic multiple regression approach to be used, with separate binomial (logit) regression equations generated for the complete sample and then for different firm age groupings, allowing relationships between exporting and each individual independent variable to be determined whilst holding all other independent variables in the equation constant. The results show that determinants of SME exporting include industry sector, age and the characteristics of the SME owner-manager, along with the firms’ available resources, including the human capital of the owner-manager, use of technology and intellectual property. While an innovation focus was consistently found to be positively linked to exporting, a growth focus was not. These results inform both practice and policy, as the exporting activity of SMEs remains closely linked to economic development policy.

Read the full article here

Title: Entrepreneurship orientation in policy making: a determinant of collaboration and organizational adaptability in entrepreneurship policy delivery

Author(s): Pia Schou Nielsen

Abstract: This paper examines how the orientation of local governments towards entrepreneurship influences the organization and adaptation of local entrepreneurship policy. Entrepreneurship policy has long been investigated; however, the organizational aspects of policy delivery efforts seem to have gone unnoticed. Adaptability and collaboration are two organizational factors that are central to the configuration of local entrepreneurship support systems. However, as hypothesized in this paper, the level of collaboration and adaptability depends on the entrepreneurship orientation of the local government. In contingency theory, strategy is a determinant of organizational structure, and the entrepreneurship orientation of governments is such a strategy. Based on a survey of 86 (out of 98) municipalities in Denmark, the paper concludes that the more positively oriented the local government is towards entrepreneurship in its policy making, the better the adaptability and collaboration in the entrepreneurship support system.

Read the full article here

Title: Discussion Paper: An alternative format for the elevator pitch

Author(s): Michael A. McCollough, Berna Devezer and George Tanner

Abstract: The elevator pitch exercise is a staple of most university entrepreneurship programmes. The premise is that someone is in an elevator (lift) with a potential investor and has only the time of the ride to make a pitch and secure a follow-up appointment. In the most typical pitch format, students stand in front of judges and deliver a memorized one- to two-minute proposal. This empirical research examines the strength of a new format for the elevator pitch: the reception format. Data collected from this new format are compared to the traditional one to establish the superiority of the reception format.

Read the full article here

Title: Case Study: Strategic thinking: intelligent opportunism and emergent strategy – the case of Strategic Engineering Services

Author(s): Steven Pattinson

Abstract: This case study focuses on strategic thinking and opportunistic approaches to business growth and diversification. It begins by examining the recent purchase of ‘Quickcover’, a remote- controlled sports pitch covering system, by engineering company Strategic Engineering Services and the company’s current dilemma – whether to continue to develop this type of product, or sell it and concentrate on its existing engineering services business. In recent years, Strategic Engineering Services has moved away from traditional heavy engineering and diversified into related areas such as engineering services, oil and gas industry recruitment, plant and equipment hire, instrument calibration and project management. The case considers the relationship between strategic thinking and entrepreneurial approaches to opportunity recognition, exploring the concept of intelligent opportunism as an approach that enables entrepreneurs to develop emergent strategies and take advantage of new opportunities. It explores these concepts in the context of the current dilemma of Strategic Engineering Services.

Read the full article here

Title: Internet Review: Creative destruction in the future

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentaries on Web-based information on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation.

Read the full article here

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