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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Professor Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Professor Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 5,000-8,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: McMullan, W.E., and Vesper, K.H. (2000), 'Becoming an entrepreneur: a participant's perspective', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 1, No 1, pp 33-43.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.


Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.


Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Professor Gerard McElwee, Huddersfield Business School, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk.

Regional Editors: Asia - Professor Manoj Joshi, Amity University, India; Canada and USA - Professor E. McMullan, University of Calgary, Canada; Europe - Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, University of Strathclyde, UK

Case Study Editor: Dr Robert Smith, Reader in Entrepreneurship, Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, UK. E-mail: r.smith-a(a)rgu.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: s.dobson(a)shu.ac.uk.

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    Global Independent Research, UK
  • Dr Susan Mayson
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Professor Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Professor Lorraine Warren
    Massey University, New Zealand
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK


5 The innovation process in emerging economies: an effectuation perspective

David Lingelbach, Ven Sriram, Tigineh Mersha and Kojo Saffu

19 The role of personality in angel investing

Charles Y. Murnieks, Richard Sudek and Robert Wiltbank

33 Work–life balance in home-based businesses: a UK study

Isla Kapasi and Laura Galloway

43 Family and work–life balance mechanisms: what is their impact on the performance of Italian female service firms?

Sara Poggesi, Michela Mari and Luisa De Vita

55 Case Study: Thornbridge – from microbrewery to food and drink empire: ‘The time and the place, and a lot of good luck’?

Christine Anne Reilly, Mike Danson, Laura Galloway and Christina Beatty

61 Internet Review: Apps and appreneurs

Clifford Conway

63 Book reviews
Robert I. Sutton and Huggy Rao, Scaling up for Excellence: Getting to More Without Settling for Less
(reviewed by Zen Parry)
Robert J. Bennett, Entrepreneurship, Small Business and Public Policy
(reviewed by Oliver Mallett)

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Title: The innovation process in emerging economies: an effectuation perspective

Author(s): David Lingelbach, Ven Sriram, Tigineh Mersha and Kojo Saffu

Abstract: The authors investigate the impact of two contrasting logics, effectuation and causation, on the innovation process in emerging economies (EEs). Effectuation theory, which emphasizes responses to uncertainty, is integrated with the innovation process literature, which emphasizes resource constraints. In particular, the authors show that in EEs the flexibility dimension of effectuation is underemphasized, while its pre-commitment dimension is overemphasized. The combination of effectuation and causation mechanisms is influenced by the industry context, as well as by the type, degree and timing of resource constraints. Employing longitudinal data from six innovation process cases across one industry (financial services) and four EEs (Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana and South Africa), the authors employ a process approach using real-world data to support their propositions.

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Title: The role of personality in angel investing

Author(s): Charles Y. Murnieks, Richard Sudek and Robert Wiltbank

Abstract: This paper offers an examination of the relationship between an entrepreneur’s personality and angel investor evaluations of the management team of venture opportunities. The authors use the Five Factor Model of personality to investigate whether angels rate the management teams of investment opportunities differently, depending on the personality profile of the focal entrepreneur. We also analyse the influence of an entrepreneur’s start-up experience and the angel investor’s investing experience on the evaluation of the management team. Hierarchical linear modelling of 1,988 investment evaluations from 40 different angels suggests that investor ratings of management teams are influenced by the personality traits of the lead entrepreneur.

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Title: Work–life balance in home-based businesses: a UK study

Author(s): Isla Kapasi and Laura Galloway

Abstract: Home-based businesses are increasing in number throughout Western economies. One of the benefits of a home-based business is asserted to be improved work–life balance, yet there is little empirical evidence to support this assertion. Using a qualitative methodology, this paper explores the work–life balance in eight home-based businesses in the UK. Motivations for working at home include the desire for improved work–life balance, but the achievement of this aim among the study participants was found to be nuanced. Critically, home-based business is another employment context in which the work–life balance must be managed. This management is especially needed because of the blurring of work and life time and space, which may demand more self-discipline in home-based workers compared with those in employment or self-employment remote from the home.

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Title: Family and work–life balance mechanisms: what is their impact on the performance of Italian female service firms?

Author(s): Sara Poggesi, Michela Mari and Luisa De Vita

Abstract: Since 2000, research on female entrepreneurship has evolved substantially; however, some areas of research remain underinvestigated. In particular, to grasp the facets of this growing phenomenon, analysis of the characteristics of female firms in countries that are different from the USA and UK and the consideration of the embeddedness of entrepreneurship in family contexts are strongly needed. Thus, these two areas represent research gaps that this paper aims to address by analysing the influence that the family and work–life balance mechanisms have on the performance of 200 Italian female service firms. Contrary to the authors’ hypotheses, the results show that family does not influence these firms’ performance, and data from work–life balance mechanisms confirm these results.

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Title: Case Study: Thornbridge – from microbrewery to food and drink empire: ‘The time and the place, and a lot of good luck’?

Author(s): Christine Anne Reilly, Mike Danson, Laura Galloway and Christina Beatty

Abstract: This case addresses the success of a particular type of business: a British microbrewery. The case focuses on the decisions made by the business owners, and on how these decisions have helped them to achieve growth and success. They believe their success has been the result of luck; however, there is evidence of good decision making and planning. This case can help students consider the importance of good decision making and forward planning from the early stages of starting a business. The study questions can help them consider the reasons behind decisions, with a view to increasing their understanding of the importance of always thinking about the next stage in business.

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Title: Internet Review: Apps and appreneurs

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentaries on Web-based information on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation.

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