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A worldwide forum for the discussion of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship.

ISSN 1465-7503 (print); 2043-6882 (online)

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Edited by:
Professor Gerard McElwee

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The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation was launched at the beginning of a century in which an understanding of the nature, process and practice of entrepreneurship will be a key factor in economic success.

Worldwide, the proliferation of small businesses and their increasing importance in the economy mean that the management and growth of such enterprises are ever-more critical in national and regional development. At the same time, changes in work patterns and the frequent opportunities for innovation offered by accelerating technological development make entrepreneurship within organizations - 'intrapreneurship' - a core challenge for large companies. From multinational to micro-enterprise, no business can afford to ignore this issue.

What is entrepreneurship? Can it be taught? How do entrepreneurs balance their innovative talents with the need to manage their business and control its growth? How do large organizations encourage and empower entrepreneurial behaviour? The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation addresses these and many other questions, focusing on practical application - from becoming an entrepreneur, through making financial choices, through strategic planning, to internationalization and acquisition. As entrepreneurship also has a key role to play outside the private sector, the journal includes in its coverage entrepreneurial issues in non-profit public-sector organizations.

Published quarterly, IJEI provides a worldwide forum for the exploration and dissemination of ideas and experience relating to the development and application of entrepreneurship. The journal takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on the highest-quality work in business and management and in the social sciences.

Authors and readers are drawn from universities, government, and industry. In particular, IJEI will appeal to researchers and teachers concerned with entrepreneurship and related issues in higher education (especially in business schools, and university departments of management, sociology and psychology); to government departments and initiatives whose objective is to promote entrepreneurial and innovative activity; and to human resources directors and chief executives in industry, as well as to entrepreneurs themselves.

The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation (ISSN 1465-7503) is a refereed journal and is published in February, May, August and November. Online access to the electronic edition is provided as a free supplement to subscribers to the printed journal.

Key topics
  • Strategic dimensions of growth
  • The entrepreneur as manager of a growing company
  • Financing company growth
  • Internationalization and growth
  • The acquisitions process of a growing company
  • Teaching entrepreneurship
  • Strategic alliances
  • New forms of organization
  • Women and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial behaviour in large organizations
  • Entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • Making allies in business
  • Ethics, the entrepreneur and the company
Contents

Each issue of IJEI includes four to six double-blind peer-reviewed papers. Contents and abstracts of the latest issue are available on this Website.

In addition to the selected papers, regular features are:

  • A case study of around 2,000-3,000 words. Designed for use in the 'classroom', case studies will be supported by questions, provided either by the author or the editor. The case studies will be diverse in coverage and approach. They may, for example: (1) describe a process whereby an entrepreneurial activity has succeeded or failed; (2) outline the stages involved in establishing a new enterprise: innovation, start-up, maturation, growth and decline; or (3) analyse a particular facet of a new enterprise (eg a human resource issue or the financing of the enterprise).
  • The Internet Review. This section identifies and reviews Websites of interest for those interested in research on entrepreneurship, small firms and innovation in an international context.

Submissions - Notes For Authors

Authors: please read and revise your manuscript to achieve the following requirements before submitting your manuscript to the Editor. Submissions should be sent by e-mail to Professor Gerard McElwee - g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk

Length and presentation of contributions

Articles should preferably be in the region of 5,000-8,000 words, including tables and references. Case studies are also sought, and such contributions will be especially welcome from practising entrepreneurs. These should be between 2,000 and 3,000 words long. Submissions should be submitted electronically as Word documents (please do not send PDF files).

The text should be ordered under appropriate sub-headings (not numbered paragraphs or sections) and these should not be more than 800 words apart. Three levels of sub-heading are possible. Please double space all text.

The title page should show the names and addresses of the authors, their professional status and affiliation and the address (including e-mail) to which correspondence should be sent. As this page will not be sent to referees, the title of the article (without author names) should be repeated on the first text page.

An abstract should be provided, comprising 100–150 words.

Between 3 and 6 keywords should appear below the abstract, highlighting the main topics of the paper.

References should follow the Harvard system. That is, they should be shown within the text as the author’s surname (or authors’ surnames) followed by a comma and the year of publication, all in round brackets: for example, (Smith, 2001).For textual citations, where there are two authors please use the word 'and', not the ampersand (thus: '(Smith and Jones, 2012)'. Where there are more than two authors, please use the first-named author only, followed by 'et al' in italics (thus: Smith et al, 2012). At the end of the article a bibliographical list should be supplied, organized alphabetically by author (surnames followed by initials - all authors should be named). Bibliographic information should be given in the order indicated by the following examples:

* Articles: McMullan, W.E., and Vesper, K.H. (2000), 'Becoming an entrepreneur: a participant's perspective', International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Vol 1, No 1, pp 33-43.

 * Books: Casson, M. (2003), The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Notes should be numbered consecutively in the text and typed in plain text at the end of the paper (not as footnotes on text pages).

Tables should be reduced to the simplest form and present only essential data. They should be submitted on separate sheets at the end of the article. The use of vertical rules in tables should be avoided.

For illustrations, line drawings and black and white photographs are acceptable. Authors are asked to supply originals of line drawings for reproduction.

Case studies

Case studies are welcome and should follow the format described above. They should be accompanied by a set of questions and model answers (see previous issues for clarification).

Case Study Submission Notes

Structure of papers

Please do provide: (a) clear aims and objectives; (b) a clear research question; (c) a discussion of your methodological approach; (d) a discussion of the limitations of your methodology; (e) further research questions if appropriate; (f) the policy implications of your paper if appropriate. Please also ensure that the bibliography is as contemporary as possible.

Pre-submission checklist
  1. Indicate in your covering letter (that is, your e-mail message) of submission what is unique and valuable about the manuscript.
  2. All figures and tables must be at the end of the manuscript; indicate the desired placement in text with ‘Insert Table 1 about here’ etc.
  3. Make sure that you double space everything on the cover, abstract, text, and reference pages using 12-point Times Roman type.
  4. Use UK English.
  5. Consider asking someone to read the manuscript before submission and give comments to you. The person can be thanked in the footnote paragraph at the bottom of the cover page.
  6. Centre page numbers at the foot of each page; do not place a page number on the cover page.
  7. Include the month and year in the centre of the cover page.
  8. Quotations should be within single quotation marks.
Prior Publication

Articles are received on the understanding that they are original contributions, and have not been published officially, either in print or electronic form, or submitted for publication elsewhere. In this respect, ‘discussion’ or ‘working’ papers, conference presentations and proceedings are not considered to be official publications, unless they have been formally deemed so by conference organizers, or presented as edited works through recognized publishing channels. If in doubt, authors are asked to draw the attention of the Editor to any prior dissemination of the paper in their letter of submission. Please note that articles should not be posted on personal Websites or social networking sites before or after submission.

Refereeing

Academic papers will be subject to a ‘double blind’ review – the anonymity of both authors and referees will be preserved throughout the refereeing process. Papers by authors who are not academics (such as submissions from practising entrepreneurs) will also be subject to review before acceptance, but their distinct nature and aims will be fully taken into account.

Copyright

Authors will be asked to assign copyright, where possible, to IP Publishing Ltd. Relevant authors’ rights are protected.

Author Checklist for Final versions

Editorial Board

Editor: Professor Gerard McElwee, Huddersfield Business School, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK. E-mail: g.mcelwee(a)hud.ac.uk.

Regional Editors: Asia - Professor Manoj Joshi, Amity University, India; Canada and USA - Professor E. McMullan, University of Calgary, Canada; Europe - Dr Sarah Drakopoulou Dodd, University of Strathclyde, UK

Case Study Editor: Dr Robert Smith, Reader in Entrepreneurship, Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, UK. E-mail: r.smith-a(a)rgu.ac.uk

Internet Review Editor: Clifford Conway, Small Business Research Unit, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton, Mithras House, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK. E-mail: c.conway(a)brighton.ac.uk

Book Reviews Editor: Dr Stephen Dobson, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, City Campus, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: s.dobson(a)shu.ac.uk.

Editorial Advisory Board
  • Professor Alistair R. Anderson
    The Robert Gordon University, UK
  • Professor Costas Andriopoulos
    Cardiff University, UK
  • Professor Alan Carsrud
    Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Professor Leo Paul Dana
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand
  • Professor Davide Dell'Anno
    Second University of Naples, Italy
  • Dr Simon Down
    Newcastle University Business School, UK
  • Professor Alain Fayolle
    EM Lyon, France
  • Dr Laura Galloway
    Heriot-Watt University, UK
  • Dr Rainer Harms
    University of Twente, The Netherlands
  • Professor Ulla Hytti
    University of Turku, Finland
  • Professor Jill Kickul
    NYU Stern School of Business, USA
  • Professor Susan Marlow
    Nottingham University Business School, UK
  • Professor Harry Matlay
    Global Independent Research, UK
  • Dr Susan Mayson
    Monash University, Australia
  • Professor Pauric McGowan
    University of Ulster, UK
  • Professor Jay Mitra
    University of Essex, UK
  • Dr Kevin Mole
    University of Warwick, UK
  • Professor Michael H. Morris
    Oklahoma State University, USA
  • Professor Wai-sum Siu
    Hong Kong Baptist University
  • Professor George T. Solomon
    Geroge Washington University, USA
  • Professor Harriet B. Stephenson
    Seattle University, USA
  • Professor Rhodri Thomas
    Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Professor Peter van der Sijde
    Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Professor Kari M. Vesala
    University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Professor Lorraine Warren
    Massey University, New Zealand
  • Professor Paul Westhead
    Durham University Business School, UK
  • Dr David Wilemon
    Syracuse University, USA
  • Professor Colin C. Williams,
    University of Sheffield, UK

MAY 2015 ISSUE (VOL 16, NO 2)

Special Issue: The Competitiveness of SMEs in the Food Sector - Exploring Possibilities For Growth
Guest editors: Barry Quinn, Lynsey McKitterick, Rodney McAdam and Adele Dunn

71 Introduction

73 Enterprise cultural heritage: the source for sustainable competitive advantage and survival for food sector SMEs

Satu Aaltonen, Aleksej Heinze, Giuseppe Ielpa and Dorella De Tommaso

85 Ownership structure and branding strategies: the case of agri-food SMEs

Mahmoud Bakkour, Fatiha Fort and Anne Mione

97 Providing authentic(ated) food: an opportunity-driven framework for small food companies to engage consumers and protect the integrity of the food supply chain

Louise Manning and Robert Smith

111 Farm retailing: motivations and practice

Andrea Tonner and Juliette Wilson

123 Norms and trust-shaping relationships among food-exporting SMEs in Ghana

Isaac Oduro Amoako and Harry Matlay

135 Microbrewing and entrepreneurship: the origins, development and integration of real ale breweries in the UK

Mike Danson, Laura Galloway, Ignazio Cabras and Tina Beatty

145 CASE STUDY: Development of an integrated policy and support programme micro rural food enterprises in an EU peripheral region

Rodney McAdam, Barry Quinn, Lynsey McKitterick, Adele Dunn and David Patterson

151 INTERNET REVIEW: Authentication and provenance of food products

Clifford Conway

153 BOOK REVIEW
Eleanor Hamilton, Entrepreneurship Across the Generations: Narrative, Gender and Learning in Family Business
(reviewed by Jameson Gill)

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Title: Enterprise cultural heritage: the source for sustainable competitive advantage and survival for food sector SMEs

Author(s): Satu Aaltonen, Aleksej Heinze, Giuseppe Ielpa and Dorella De Tommaso

Abstract: Remaining in business and growing is a challenge for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the food sector. The focus of this paper is the internal innovation avenue for SMEs that have been trading for decades and have developed the asset of enterprise cultural heritage (ECH). The authors examine ECH as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, using the value, rarity, imitability and organization (VRIO) framework and evaluating the practical potential of ECH to create sustainable competitive advantage through case studies of two international companies. The authors argue that companies that are only partially able to fulfil each of the VRIO criteria can still claim sustainable competitive advantage, as demonstrated by the case studies. Moreover, it is suggested that ECH is one of the key areas for innovation from within a firm and should be used in developing sustainable competitive advantage.

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Title: Ownership structure and branding strategies: the case of agri-food SMEs

Author(s): Mahmoud Bakkour, Fatiha Fort and Anne Mione

Abstract: The brand is the most important asset for enterprises. In a competitive marketplace, brand is considered the best way to differentiate products, to build corporate image and to develop bargaining power with retailers. Branding strategies are therefore a key aspect of corporate decision making. In this paper, the authors analyse the relationship between the ownership structure of agri-food SMEs and branding strategies. A conceptual model of how these variables are related is proposed and empirically tested using data from two surveys (2003 and 2010) of a representative sample of agri-food SMEs in the Languedoc–Roussillon region (South of France). The results show that ownership structure influences branding strategies in SMEs. This finding might be considered a challenge to the relevance of applying agency theory to a very particular form of enterprise and sector of activity.

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Title: Providing authentic(ated) food: an opportunity-driven framework for small food companies to engage consumers and protect the integrity of the food supply chain

Author(s): Louise Manning and Robert Smith

Abstract: The 2013 horsemeat scandal and other such cases have led consumers to question their trust in extended global food supply chains. The aim of this research is to identify how small and medium- sized rural food retailers maintain food integrity with a market driver for cheaper food and the potential for food fraud. Qualitative interviews with industry insiders and analysis of data from rural food retail stores (n = 20) enabled a conceptual framework to be postulated. Adding value through Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) can deliver product differentiation, but also provides opportunities for food fraud/substitution if there is a large price differential between the niche and the standard product. Therefore value can be added to products by developing associated trust and social capital, but consumers must be safeguarded from making false assumptions on provenance or from potential food criminality and predatory, criminal entrepreneurs.

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Title: Farm retailing: motivations and practice

Author(s): Andrea Tonner and Juliette Wilson

Abstract: This paper investigates rural diversification strategies, specifically focusing on farm retailing. The study reveals farmers’ different motivations and experiences of structural diversification through both farmers’ markets and wholly-owned farm shops. Using a qualitative study of eight farm businesses, the authors find that diversification is not always motivated by entrepreneurial objectives. Necessity (push) factors (such as agri-food market inequality) act as the catalysts transforming nascent diversification tendencies. Once the need for diversification is unlocked, farmers face an entrepreneurial choice: those with push motivations (such as risk reduction) choose non-entrepreneurial diversification in the form of farmers’ markets, while those with pull motivations (such as business growth) exhibit characteristics of entrepreneurship and engage in entrepreneurial diversification in the form of on-farm retailing.

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Title: Norms and trust-shaping relationships among food-exporting SMEs in Ghana

Author(s): Isaac Oduro Amoako and Harry Matlay

Abstract: There is a marked paucity of empirically rigorous research that focuses on the impact that indigenous institutional influences can have on the internationalization strategies of entrepreneurs operating in developing countries. This study therefore explores the complex processes through which owner-managers of food-exporting SMEs in Ghana draw on cultural norms to build networks that enable internationalization, in the absence of formal institutional support. The results facilitate a better understanding of the hybridization of indigenous and global norms that underpin SME internationalization in Ghana and other developing economies, particularly in Africa. The study contributes to the theory and practice of interorganizational relationships and to international entrepreneurship in an African context.

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Title: Microbrewing and entrepreneurship: the origins, development and integration of real ale breweries in the UK

Author(s): Mike Danson, Laura Galloway, Ignazio Cabras and Tina Beatty

Abstract: This paper reports on an exploratory two-stage study of microbreweries in the UK. The first stage comprises an analysis of data from the Small Independent Breweries Association to offer an aggregate picture of the sector. The second stage reports on a qualitative study of the experiences of 14 microbreweries. The findings from the fieldwork show that the UK microbrewing sector is growing, that competitiveness within the brewing establishment is based on artisan manufacture, provenance and diversity rather than price, and that the sector is contestable but operates as a competitive fringe within the greater industry. The study illustrates that microbreweries can contribute to local economies and that, because of the innovation, diversity and growth in the sector, entrepreneurship is in evidence. While saturation seems a threat, the evidence presented here suggests that UK microbrewing is a healthy sector, with the prospect of ongoing growth and contribution.

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Title: Case study: Development of an integrated policy and support programme micro rural food enterprises in an EU peripheral region

Author(s): Rodney McAdam, Barry Quinn, Lynsey McKitterick, Adele Dunn and David Patterson

Abstract: This case study explores how a peripheral rural region food support programme for small (micro) food enterprises was developed based on regional government food policy. An exploratory case study methodology is employed. The findings show that integration of policy and practice at a regional level should be reflected in the design and implementation of micro food business support programmes. This integration is essential to enable micro businesses to benefit from government aid in a collective manner which could not be achieved in government–micro-enterprise dyadic relationships.

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Title: Internet Review: Authentication and provenance of food products

Author(s): Clifford Conway

Abstract: ‘Internet Review’ provides critical commentary on entrepreneurship, small business and innovation information on the Web.

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